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      A New Method to Improve Running Economy and Maximal Aerobic Power in Athletes: Endurance Training With Periodic Carbon Monoxide Inhalation

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      Frontiers in Physiology

      Frontiers Media SA

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          Regulation of erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factors.

          A classic physiologic response to systemic hypoxia is the increase in red blood cell production. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) orchestrate this response by inducing cell-type specific gene expression changes that result in increased erythropoietin (EPO) production in kidney and liver, in enhanced iron uptake and utilization and in adjustments of the bone marrow microenvironment that facilitate erythroid progenitor maturation and proliferation. In particular HIF-2 has emerged as the transcription factor that regulates EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and plays a critical role in the regulation of intestinal iron uptake. Its key function in the hypoxic regulation of erythropoiesis is underscored by genetic studies in human populations that live at high-altitude and by mutational analysis of patients with familial erythrocytosis. This review provides a perspective on recent insights into HIF-controlled erythropoiesis and iron metabolism, and examines cell types that have EPO-producing capability. Furthermore, the review summarizes clinical syndromes associated with mutations in the O(2)-sensing pathway and the genetic changes that occur in high altitude natives. The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic HIF activation for the treatment of anemia is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            “Living high-training low”: effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance

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              Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.

              This study investigated whether hypoxic exposure increased muscle buffer capacity (beta(m)) and mechanical efficiency during exercise in male athletes. A control (CON, n=7) and a live high:train low group (LHTL, n=6) trained at near sea level (600 m), with the LHTL group sleeping for 23 nights in simulated moderate altitude (3000 m). Whole body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured under normoxia before, during and after 23 nights of sleeping in hypoxia, during cycle ergometry comprising 4 x 4-min submaximal stages, 2-min at 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1), and 2-min 'all-out' to determine total work and VO(2peak). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest and after a standardized 2-min 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1) bout, before and after LHTL, and analysed for beta(m) and metabolites. After LHTL, beta(m) was increased (18%, P < 0.05). Although work was maintained, VO(2peak) fell after LHTL (7%, P < 0.05). Submaximal VO2 was reduced (4.4%, P < 0.05) and efficiency improved (0.8%, P < 0.05) after LHTL probably because of a shift in fuel utilization. This is the first study to show that hypoxic exposure, per se, increases muscle buffer capacity. Further, reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to LHTL.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers Media SA
                1664-042X
                June 6 2019
                June 6 2019
                : 10
                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2019.00701
                © 2019

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