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      Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment

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      Clinical and Experimental Optometry

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 16

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          Psychosocial aspects of strabismus study.

          To assess the psychosocial implications of growing up with and living with socially noticeable strabismus. Self-report mailed questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Patients with strabismus who were seen at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, from 1976 to 1989. Forty-three female and male subjects aged 15 years or older who had a history of childhood strabismus that was uncorrected or incompletely corrected past the age of 13 years. None. Participants' responses to our survey and to the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Strabismus had a negative impact on many aspects of our subjects' lives. They report difficulty with self-image, securing employment, interpersonal relationships, school, work, and sports. Furthermore, difficulties encountered did not go away after childhood, rather, the problems encountered by our subjects intensified in the teenage and adult years. Subjects demonstrated generalized higher levels of distress on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist than age- and sex-matched controls (P < .01). Psychosocial difficulties relating to socially noticeable strabismus are not just a problem for school-children but also for teenagers and adults. Correction of strabismus in the older teenager or adult may offer them improvement in psychosocial functioning, a benefit not previously reported in the literature.
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            Critical periods and amblyopia.

             N D Daw (1998)
            During the past 20 years, basic science has shown that there are different critical periods for different visual functions during the development of the visual system. Visual functions processed at higher anatomical levels within the system have a later critical period than functions processed at lower levels. This general principle suggests that treatments for amblyopia should be followed in a logical sequence, with treatment for each visual function to be started before its critical period is over. However, critical periods for some visual functions, such as stereopsis, are not yet fully determined, and the optimal treatment is, therefore, unknown. This article summarizes the current extent of our knowledge and points to the gaps that need to be filled.
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              The sensitive period for strabismic amblyopia in humans.

              In order to assess the sensitive period for strabismic amblyopia, the period of susceptibility to monocular occlusion was investigated in 407 children who ranged in age from 21 months to 12 years. Patients were treated between 1975 and 1990 by occlusion of the best eye. The efficiency of the treatment was measured as the ratio of reduction of the amblyopia at the end of the occlusion. The efficiency of the occlusion is shown to depend on the age of the onset of the treatment: recovery of acuity of the amblyopic eye was maximum when the occlusion was initiated before 3 years of age, decreased as a function of age and was about null by the time the patient was 12 years of age. This is assumed to be an indication of the sensitive period for strabismic amblyopia in humans. The results are discussed on the basis of the neurophysiological mechanisms of amblyopia established in animals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CXO
                Clinical and Experimental Optometry
                Wiley
                08164622
                14440938
                November 2005
                November 2005
                : 88
                : 6
                : 365-375
                Article
                10.1111/j.1444-0938.2005.tb05102.x
                © 2005

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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