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      Artificial dermal substitutes for tissue regeneration: comparison of the clinical outcomes and histological findings of two templates

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          Artificial dermal substitutes (DSs) are fundamental in physiological wound healing to ensure consistent and enduring wound closure and provide a suitable scaffold to repair tissue. We compared the clinical and histological features of two DSs, Pelnac and Integra, in the treatment of traumatic and iatrogenic skin defects.


          This prospective observational study involved 71 randomly selected patients from our hospital. Wound healing was analyzed using the Wound Surface Area Assessment, the Vancouver Scar Scale, and a visual analog scale. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were also performed.


          At 2 weeks, greater regeneration with respect to proliferation of the epidermis and renewal of the dermis was observed with Pelnac than with Integra. At 4 weeks, the dermis had regenerated with both DSs. Both templates induced renewed collagen and revascularization. Differences in the Vancouver Scar Scale score were statistically significant at 4 weeks and 1 year. Pelnac produced a significant increase in contraction at 2 weeks with increasing effectiveness at 4 weeks. Integra produced a higher percentage reduction in the wound surface area and a shorter healing time than Pelnac for wounds >1.5 cm deep.


          Our observational data indicate that both DSs are effective and applicable in different clinical contexts.

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          Most cited references 31

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          The wound healing process: an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms.

          Wound healing remains a challenging clinical problem and correct, efficient wound management is essential. Much effort has been focused on wound care with an emphasis on new therapeutic approaches and the development of technologies for acute and chronic wound management. Wound healing involves multiple cell populations, the extracellular matrix and the action of soluble mediators such as growth factors and cytokines. Although the process of healing is continuous, it may be arbitrarily divided into four phases: (i) coagulation and haemostasis; (ii) inflammation; (iii) proliferation; and (iv) wound remodelling with scar tissue formation. The correct approach to wound management may effectively influence the clinical outcome. This review discusses wound classification, the physiology of the wound healing process and the methods used in wound management.
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            Advances in Skin Regeneration Using Tissue Engineering

            Tissue engineered skin substitutes for wound healing have evolved tremendously over the last couple of years. New advances have been made toward developing skin substitutes made up of artificial and natural materials. Engineered skin substitutes are developed from acellular materials or can be synthesized from autologous, allograft, xenogenic, or synthetic sources. Each of these engineered skin substitutes has their advantages and disadvantages. However, to this date, a complete functional skin substitute is not available, and research is continuing to develop a competent full thickness skin substitute product that can vascularize rapidly. There is also a need to redesign the currently available substitutes to make them user friendly, commercially affordable, and viable with longer shelf life. The present review focuses on providing an overview of advances in the field of tissue engineered skin substitute development, the availability of various types, and their application.
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              Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

              The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

                Author and article information

                J Int Med Res
                J. Int. Med. Res
                The Journal of International Medical Research
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                13 August 2020
                August 2020
                : 48
                : 8
                [1 ]Department of Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, AOU “Ospedali Riuniti”, Ancona, Italy
                [2 ]Accademia del Lipofilling, Research and Training Center in Regenerative Surgery, Montelabbate (PU), Italy
                [3 ]Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
                [4 ]Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Medical Area (DAME), University of Udine, Italy
                [5 ]Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
                [6 ]Data Analysis Office, University of Milan, Milano, Italy
                [7 ]School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica, MC, Italy
                Author notes
                Francesco De Francesco, Department of Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, AOU “Ospedali Riuniti,” via Conca 71, Ancona 60123, Italy. Emails: fran.defr@ ; francesco.defrancesco@
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

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