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      • Article: found

      Recurrence of Primary Breast Lymphoma Presenting as Bilateral Vitreoretinal Lymphoma


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          Purpose: This report describes a case of relapsed primary breast lymphoma (PBL) presenting as vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). Methods: We describe the clinical and hematopathologic findings in a patient with relapsed PBL involving the vitreous of both eyes. Results: A 59-year-old woman was treated for PBL with systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy 5 years prior to presentation. Three years later, she presented to an outside clinic with blurred vision in both eyes and bilateral vitritis. She was referred to our clinic with concern for ocular lymphoma. On presentation, the patient’s best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye with 3+ vitreous cells in the right eye and 2+ vitreous cells in the left eye. Vitreous biopsy of the right eye revealed CD5-negative/CD10-negative B-cell lymphoma cells on flow cytometry. She had no evidence of disease on brain MRI, lumbar puncture, bone marrow biopsy, or full-body CT scans. She was treated with a regimen of rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine for central nervous system penetration as well as multiple intraocular injections of methotrexate and rituximab with improvement in vision and ocular inflammation bilaterally. Conclusion: Relapsed PBL can present as bilateral VRL.

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          Most cited references11

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          Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a report from an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Collaborative Group symposium.

          Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), also known as primary intraocular lymphoma, is a rare malignancy typically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and most frequently develops in elderly populations. PVRL commonly masquerades as posterior uveitis and has a unique tropism for the retina and central nervous system (CNS). Over 15% of primary CNS lymphoma patients develop intraocular lymphoma, usually occurring in the retina and/or vitreous. Conversely, 65%-90% of PVRL patients develop CNS lymphoma. Consequently, PVRL is often fatal because of ultimate CNS association. Current PVRL animal models are limited and require further development. Typical clinical findings include vitreous cellular infiltration (lymphoma and inflammatory cells) and subretinal tumor infiltration as determined using dilated fundoscopy, fluorescent angiography, and optical coherent tomography. Currently, PVRL is most often diagnosed using both histology to identify lymphoma cells in the vitreous or retina and immunohistochemistry to indicate monoclonality. Additional adjuncts in diagnosing PVRL exist, including elevation of interleukin-10 levels in ocular fluids and detection of Ig(H) or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in malignant cells. The optimal therapy for PVRL is not defined and requires the combined effort of oncologists and ophthalmologists. PVRL is sensitive to radiation therapy and exhibits high responsiveness to intravitreal methotrexate or rituximab. Although systemic chemotherapy alone can result in high response rates in patients with PVRL, there is a high relapse rate. Because of the disease rarity, international, multicenter, collaborative efforts are required to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of PVRL as well as to define both diagnostic markers and optimal therapies.
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            Understanding intraocular lymphomas.

            The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical features, pathology and molecular biology of intraocular lymphomas, which represent a heterogenous group of malignant neoplasms; to propose an anatomical classification of these tumours according to whether they occur in the retina or uvea; and to overview laboratory investigations and highlight factors required for successful biopsy. Recent findings show that retinal lymphomas are high-grade (i.e. aggressive), B-cell malignancies and are associated with a poor prognosis, with most patients dying of central nervous system disease. Immunophenotyping and somatic mutation analyses indicate that these lymphomas are probably derived from early post-germinal centre cells. Primary choroidal lymphomas are typically low-grade (i.e. indolent), B-cell tumours with morphological, immunophenotypical and genotypic features similar to extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (EMZL) elsewhere in the body. The putative cell of origin is the post-germinal centre (memory) B cell. Primary iridal lymphomas are very rare, with an equal distribution of B- and T-cell types and with a variable clinical course, most patients succumbing to their disease as a result of systemic dissemination. Primary lymphomas limited to the ciliary body are exceptionally rare. Secondary uveal lymphomas/leukaemias occur in patients with advanced systemic lymphoma or leukaemia, respectively. In summary, the term 'primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL)' is imprecise. It would be preferable to refer to the various forms of intraocular lymphoma according to whether they are retinal, choroidal, ciliary or iridal and whether they are primary or secondary in these locations.
              • Record: found
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              Primary Breast Lymphoma: Results of a Controlled Clinical Trial

              Objectives: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of the most employed therapeutic approaches in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma (PBL). Methods: Ninety-six patients with PBL in the early stage (I or II) were enrolled to receive radiotherapy (45 Gy); chemotherapy (six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP), every 21 days), or combined therapy. Results: Complete response was achieved in 20 of 30 patients treated with radiotherapy, 19 of 32 who were treated with chemotherapy and 30 of 34 in the combined arm (p < 0.01). Actuarial curves at 10 years showed that event-free survival was 50, 57 and 83%, respectively (p < 0.01). Actuarial curves for overall survival were 50, 50 and 76% (p < 0.01), respectively. The most common site of relapse was the central nervous system. Acute toxicity was mild. Until now, no second neoplasm or acute leukemia has been observed. Conclusions: In our study combined therapy is the best treatment in this special setting of patients; with improvement in event-free survival and overall survival without acute or severe late side effects. Prophylaxis to the central nervous system will be considered in the initial treatment to improve outcome.

                Author and article information

                Ocular Oncology and Pathology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2021
                19 May 2021
                : 7
                : 5
                : 311-315
                [_a] aDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina Kittner Eye Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
                [_b] bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Duke Eye Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
                Author information
                515560 Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021;7:311–315
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 14 June 2020
                : 28 February 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 5
                Novel Insights from Clinical Practice

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Lymphoma,Masquerading syndrome,Secondary lymphoma


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