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      Diploidy within a Haploid Genus of Entomopathogenic Fungi


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          Fungi in the genus Metarhizium are soil-borne plant–root endophytes and rhizosphere colonizers, but also potent insect pathogens with highly variable host ranges. These ascomycete fungi are predominantly asexually reproducing and ancestrally haploid, but two independent origins of persistent diploidy within the Coleoptera-infecting Metarhizium majus species complex are known and has been attributed to incomplete chromosomal segregation following meiosis during the sexual cycle. There is also evidence for infrequent sexual cycles in the locust-specific pathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which is an important entomopathogenic biocontrol agent used for the control of grasshoppers in agricultural systems as an alternative to chemical control. Here, we show that the genome of the M. acridum isolate ARSEF 324, which is formulated and commercially utilized is functionally diploid. We used single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to complete a high-quality assembly of ARSEF 324. K-mer frequencies, intragenomic collinearity between contigs and single nucleotide variant read depths across the genome revealed the first incidence of diploidy described within the species M. acridum. The haploid assembly of 44.7 Mb consisted of 20.8% repetitive elements, which is the highest proportion described of any Metarhizium species. The long-read diploid genome assembly sheds light on past research on this strain, such as unusual high UVB tolerance. The data presented here could fuel future investigation into the fitness landscape of fungi with infrequent sexual reproduction and aberrant ploidy levels, not least in the context of biocontrol agents.

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          Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data

          Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic Contact: usadel@bio1.rwth-aachen.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools

            Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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              NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

              For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.

                Author and article information

                Role: Associate Editor
                Genome Biol Evol
                Genome Biol Evol
                Genome Biology and Evolution
                Oxford University Press
                July 2021
                10 July 2021
                10 July 2021
                : 13
                : 7
                : evab158
                [1 ] Section for Organismal Biology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Frederiksberg C, Denmark
                [2 ] Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California Riverside , California, USA
                [3 ] Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro , Brazil
                Author notes
                Present address: Division for Global Surveillance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
                Corresponding author: E-mail: knn@ 123456plen.ku.dk .
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                : 02 July 2021
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Research Article

                genome duplication,ploidy,parasexual,metarhizium,entomopathogen,ascomycete
                genome duplication, ploidy, parasexual, metarhizium, entomopathogen, ascomycete


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