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      Indoxyl Sulfate and Atherosclerotic Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Background: Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin that accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate are increased in dialysis patients. It was reported that indoxyl sulfate plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in uremic patients, and stimulates proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We examined associations between indoxyl sulfate and several markers related to atherosclerosis. Methods: The association between indoxyl sulfate and atherosclerotic risk factors was studied in 224 hemodialysis (HD) patients (123 male, 101 female). Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: There were significant differences in serum levels of creatinine, calcium × phosphate and pentosidine between high- and lowindoxyl sulfate level groups. Indoxyl sulfate showed significant positive correlations with pentosidine, creatinine, and protein catabolic rate, and a significant negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Further, pentosidine, creatinine, and HDL-cholesterol were independently associated with indoxyl sulfate by multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: In addition to creatinine, pentosidine and HDL-cholesterol, the risk factors of atherosclerosis, were associated with indoxyl sulfate in HD patients. Indoxyl sulfate may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 17

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          A simple fluorometric assay for lipoperoxide in blood plasma.

           K Yagi (1976)
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            HDL and arteriosclerosis: beyond reverse cholesterol transport.

            The inverse correlation between serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the risk of coronary heart disease, the protection of susceptible animals from atherosclerosis by transgenic manipulation of HDL metabolism, and several potentially anti-atherogenic in vitro-properties have made HDL metabolism an interesting target for pharmacological intervention in atheroslcerosis. We have previously reviewed the concept of reverse cholesterol transport, which describes both the metabolism and the classic anti-atherogenic function of HDL (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20 2001 13). We here summarize the current understanding of additional biological, potentially anti-atherogenic properties of HDL. HDL inhibits the chemotaxis of monocytes, the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, LDL oxidation, complement activation, platelet activation and factor X activation but also stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, the synthesis of prostacyclin and natriuretic peptide C in endothelial cells, and the activation of proteins C and S. These anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregatory, anti-coagulant, and pro-fibrinolytic activities are exerted by different components of HDL, namley apolipoproteins, enzymes, and even specific phospholipids. This complexity further emphasizes that changes in the functionality of HDL rather than changes of plasma HDL-cholesterol levels determine the anti-atherogenicity of therapeutic alterations of HDL metabolism.
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              Uremic toxins of organic anions up-regulate PAI-1 expression by induction of NF-kappaB and free radical in proximal tubular cells.

              Uremic toxins have been suggested to promote progression of chronic renal failure. We have shown that organic anion transporter-mediated uptake of uremic toxins induces oxidative stress in opossum kidney renal tubular cells overexpressing the transporter. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) are major factors known to promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study examined the signaling pathway that is activated by uremic toxins to induce PAI-1 and activate NF-kappaB in human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Uremic toxins in the form of organic anion were examined their ability to induce oxidative stress, PAI-1 gene expression, and NF-kappaB activation in HK-2. PAI-1 expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the Northern blotting. Human PAI-1 promoter activity was estimated by luciferase reporter gene (NKkappaB-luc) assay. NF-kappaB activation was measured by the pNFkappaB-luc reporter gene and electrophretic gel mobility shift assay. Among organic anion species tested, indoxyl sulfate and indoleacetic acid induced free radical production in HK-2. A nonspecific transporter inhibitor (probenecid) suppressed the IS-stimulated radical production. Indoxyl sulfate and indoleacetic acid dose dependently increased the expressions of PAI-1 mRNA and protein in these cells. The luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that indoxyl sulfate and indoleacetic acid dose dependently activated NF-kappaB and PAI-1 promoter. Activation of NF-kappaB was also confirmed by an electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay. Both antioxidant and NF-kappaB inhibitors dose dependently inhibited the activation of PAI-1 promoter by indoxyl sulfate. Uremic toxins induce free radical production by renal tubular cells and activate NF-kappaB which, in turn, up-regulates PAI-1 expression. Thus, progression of chronic renal failure may be promoted by PAI-1 up-regulation induced by uremic toxins.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                March 2007
                11 January 2007
                : 27
                : 1
                : 30-35
                aDepartment of Clinical Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, and bMeiyo Clinic, Toyohashi, Japan
                98542 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:30–35
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 33, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98542
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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