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      COVID-19 Lockdown: Housing Built Environment’s Effects on Mental Health

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          Abstract

          Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic on 11 March, severe lockdown measures have been adopted by the Italian Government. For over two months of stay-at-home orders, houses became the only place where people slept, ate, worked, practiced sports, and socialized. As consolidated evidence exists on housing as a determinant of health, it is of great interest to explore the impact that COVID-19 response-related lockdown measures have had on mental health and well-being. We conducted a large web-based survey on 8177 students from a university institute in Milan, Northern Italy, one of the regions most heavily hit by the pandemic in Europe. As emerged from our analysis, poor housing is associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms during lockdown. In particular, living in apartments <60 m 2 with poor views and scarce indoor quality is associated with, respectively, 1.31 (95% CI: 1046–1637), 1.368 (95% CI: 1166–1605), and 2.253 (95% CI: 1918–2647) times the risk of moderate–severe and severe depressive symptoms. Subjects reporting worsened working performance from home were over four times more likely to also report depression (OR = 4.28, 95% CI: 3713–4924). Housing design strategies should focus on larger and more livable living spaces facing green areas. We argue that a strengthened multi-interdisciplinary approach, involving urban planning, public mental health, environmental health, epidemiology, and sociology, is needed to investigate the effects of the built environment on mental health, so as to inform welfare and housing policies centered on population well-being.

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          Most cited references53

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          A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7.

          Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
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            The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

            Summary The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
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              Factor structure of the barratt impulsiveness scale

              The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                17 August 2020
                August 2020
                : 17
                : 16
                : 5973
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy; andrea.amerio@ 123456unige.it (A.A.); davidebianchi.md@ 123456gmail.com (D.B.); francesca.santi.ge@ 123456gmail.com (F.S.); gianluca.serafini@ 123456unige.it (G.S.); mario.amore@ 123456unige.it (M.A.)
                [2 ]IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
                [4 ]Department of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (DABC), Design & Health Lab, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy; andrea1.brambilla@ 123456polimi.it (A.B.); alessandro.morganti@ 123456polimi.it (A.M.); stefano.capolongo@ 123456polimi.it (S.C.)
                [5 ]Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy; luigi.costantini1@ 123456studenti.unipr.it
                [6 ]School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy; odone.anna@ 123456hsr.it (A.O.); signorelli.carlo@ 123456hsr.it (C.S.)
                [7 ]Clinical Epidemiology and HTA, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
                [8 ]Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (UNIGE), 1206 Geneva, Switzerland; alessandra.costanza@ 123456unige.ch
                [9 ]Department of Psychiatry, ASO Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo Hospital, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: andrea.aguglia@ 123456unige.it ; Tel.: +39-0103537-668; Fax: +39-0103537-669
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3439-340X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7891-0336
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2003-2101
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3338-3963
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6387-6462
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6631-856X
                Article
                ijerph-17-05973
                10.3390/ijerph17165973
                7459481
                32824594
                1e65d220-873b-4f04-8ba1-d4f926c40328
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 June 2020
                : 13 August 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                covid-19,lockdown,housing built environment,mental health,evidence-based design
                Public health
                covid-19, lockdown, housing built environment, mental health, evidence-based design

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