Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) is required for the co-translational insertion of newly synthesized multi-transmembrane proteins. Compromised EMC function in different cell types has been implicated in multiple diseases. Using inducible genetic mouse models, we revealed defects in retinal vascularization upon endothelial cell (EC) specific deletion of Emc1, the largest subunit of EMC. Loss of Emc1 in ECs led to reduced vascular progression and vascular density, diminished tip cell sprouts, and vascular leakage. We then performed an unbiased transcriptomic analysis on human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) and revealed a pivotal role of EMC1 in the β-catenin signaling pathway. Further in-vitro and in-vivo experiments proved that loss of EMC1 led to compromised β-catenin signaling activity through reduced expression of Wnt receptor FZD4, which could be restored by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment. Driven by these findings, we screened genomic DNA samples from familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) patients and identified one heterozygous variant in EMC1 that co-segregated with FEVR phenotype in the family. In-vitro expression experiments revealed that this variant allele failed to facilitate the expression of FZD4 on the plasma membrane and activate the β-catenin signaling pathway, which might be a main cause of FEVR. In conclusion, our findings reveal that variants in EMC1 gene cause compromised β-catenin signaling activity, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of FEVR.