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      Carbon Dioxide Improves Phosphorus Nutrition by Facilitating the Remobilization of Phosphorus From the Shoot Cell Wall in Rice ( Oryza sativa)

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          Abstract

          Phosphorus (P) starvation leads to increased reutilization of cell wall P in rice ( Oryza sativa). Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is involved not only in plant growth and development but also in the response to abiotic stresses. However, it remains unclear whether CO 2 affects the reutilization of cell wall P in rice when subjected to P deficiency. In the present study, elevated CO 2 (600 μl·L −1) significantly increased the soluble P content in shoots when compared with ambient CO 2 (400 μl·L −1). This positive effect was accompanied by an increase of pectin content, as well as an increase of pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, which results in P release from the shoot cell wall, making it available for plant growth. P deficiency significantly induced the expression of phosphate transporter genes ( OsPT2, OsPT6, and OsPT8) and decreased the P content in the xylem sap, but elevated CO 2 had no further effect, indicating that the increased soluble P content observed in shoots under elevated CO 2 is attributable to the reutilization of shoot cell wall P. Elevated CO 2 further increased the P deficiency-induced ethylene production in the shoots, and the addition of the ethylene precursor 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) mimicked this effect, while the addition of the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) abolished this effect. These results further support the role of ethylene in the alleviation of P deficiency under elevated CO 2. Taken together, our results indicate that the improvement of P nutrition in rice by elevated CO 2 is mediated by increasing the shoot cell wall pectin content and PME activity, possibly via the ethylene signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Growth of the plant cell wall.

            Plant cells encase themselves within a complex polysaccharide wall, which constitutes the raw material that is used to manufacture textiles, paper, lumber, films, thickeners and other products. The plant cell wall is also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the Earth. The cell wall not only strengthens the plant body, but also has key roles in plant growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defence. Recent discoveries have uncovered how plant cells synthesize wall polysaccharides, assemble them into a strong fibrous network and regulate wall expansion during cell growth.
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              New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                22 May 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1 State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Nanjing, China
                2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Benoit Schoefs, Le Mans Université, France

                Reviewed by: Qi Chen, Kunming University of Science and Technology, China; Chiou Tzyy-Jen, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

                *Correspondence: Ren Fang Shen, rfshen@ 123456issas.ac.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2019.00665
                6541036
                Copyright © 2019 Zhu, Zhang, Dong and Shen.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 10, Words: 6409
                Funding
                Funded by: Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
                Award ID: 2015250
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 31501825
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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