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      Circulating Levels of MicroRNAs Associated With Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Male and Female South African Participants


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          MicroRNAs are non-coding, post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and their dysregulation has been associated with development of various diseases, including hypertension. Consequently, understanding their role in the pathogenesis and progression of disease is essential. Prior research focusing on microRNAs in disease has provided a basis for understanding disease prognosis and offered possible channels for therapeutic interventions. Herein, we aimed to investigate possible differences in the expression profiles of five microRNAs in the blood of participants grouped on the basis of their hypertension status. This was done to elucidate the possible roles played by these microRNAs in the development of hypertension. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated the expression levels of miR-126-3p, 30a-5p, 182-5p, 30e-3p, and 1299 in the whole blood of 1456 participants, normotensive ( n = 573), screen-detected hypertensive ( n = 304) and known hypertensive ( n = 579). The expression of miR-126-3p and 182-5p was significantly higher in known hypertensives relative to both screen-detected hypertensives and normotensives, and also in screen-detected hypertensives vs normotensives. A significant association between the expression of miR-126-3p, 182-5p, and 30a-5p and known hypertension was also evident. This study demonstrated dysregulated miR-126-3p, 182-5p, and 30a-5p expression in hypertension, highlighting the possible efficacy of these microRNAs as targets for the diagnosis of hypertension as well as the development of microRNA-based therapies.

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          Most cited references35

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries.

            Hypertension is the leading preventable cause of premature death worldwide. We examined global disparities of hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in 2010 and compared secular changes from 2000 to 2010.
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              The global epidemiology of hypertension

              Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide. Owing to widespread use of antihypertensive medications, global mean blood pressure (BP) has remained constant or decreased slightly over the past four decades. By contrast, the prevalence of hypertension has increased, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Estimates suggest that in 2010, 31.1% of adults (1.39 billion) worldwide had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among adults was higher in LMICs (31.5%, 1.04 billion people) than in high-income countries (HICs; 28.5%, 349 million people). Variations in the levels of risk factors for hypertension, such as high sodium intake, low potassium intake, obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, may explain some of the regional heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence. Despite the increasing prevalence, the proportions of hypertension awareness, treatment and BP control are low, particularly in LMICs, and few comprehensive assessments of the economic impact of hypertension exist. Future studies are warranted to test implementation strategies for hypertension prevention and control, especially in low-income populations, and to accurately assess the prevalence and financial burden of hypertension worldwide.

                Author and article information

                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 September 2021
                : 12
                : 710438
                [1] 1SAMRC/CPUT/Cardiometabolic Health Research Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology , Cape Town, South Africa
                [2] 2Division of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) and Stellenbosch University , Cape Town, South Africa
                [3] 3Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town, South Africa
                [4] 4Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town , Cape Town, South Africa
                Author notes

                Edited by: Dawn Stephens, Technology Innovation Agency (TIA), South Africa

                Reviewed by: Said El Shamieh, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon; Zhipeng Liu, Purdue University, United States

                *Correspondence: Don M. Matshazi, matshazid@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Human and Medical Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics

                Copyright © 2021 Matshazi, Weale, Erasmus, Kengne, Davids, Raghubeer, Davison and Matsha.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 16 May 2021
                : 13 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 9, Words: 8349
                Funded by: South African Medical Research Council, doi 10.13039/501100001322;
                Funded by: National Research Foundation, doi 10.13039/501100001321;
                Original Research

                hypertension,microrna,rt-qpcr,africa,blood pressure,non-coding rna
                hypertension, microrna, rt-qpcr, africa, blood pressure, non-coding rna


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