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      Respuesta de la germinación de semillas forrajeras a soluciones salinas en condiciones controladas Translated title: Response of forage seed germination to saline solutions under controlled conditions

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          Abstract

          La salinidad es uno de los factores limitantes que afectan negativamente la germinación, emergencia y desarrollo de pastos en la parte baja de la subcuenca del Río Lauca - Oruro, reduciendo la disponibilidad de forrajes para la ganadería. Con el propósito de identificar especies forrajeras tolerantes a la salinidad, se evaluó la capacidad germinativa en soluciones salinas de ocho especies: Agropyron elongatum (Host) P. Beauv., Hordeum muticum J. Presl., Bromus catharticus Vahl., X. Triticosecale Wittmarck, Hordeum vulgare L., Atriplex cristata, Trifolium amabile (L.) Kunth., y Suaeda foliosa Moq. La investigación, se realizó en laboratorios de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas y Naturales - Universidad Técnica de Oruro; a las semillas se aplicó soluciones salinas con cuatro concentraciones de NaCl por un litro de agua destilada: 2.56, 5.12, 7.68 y 10.54 g, y un testigo sin salinidad. Los resultados indican que X. Triticosecale Wittmarck y H. vulgare tienen mayor tolerancia a las soluciones de extrema salinidad y poco afectadas en su capacidad germinativa. Las semillas de A. elongatum, B. catharticus y S. foliosa reducen significativamente la germinación, sin embargo, logran germinar en todos los niveles de salinidad. Las semillas de A. cristata y T. amabile, son las más sensibles a la afectación salina, la germinación se reduce significativamente en todos los niveles de salinidad, incluso se anula en la concentración más alta. Se concluye que estas especies pueden utilizarse como forrajeras para el aprovechamiento de suelos salinizados, en función a la tolerancia máxima determinada.

          Translated abstract

          Salinity is one of the limiting factors that negatively affect the germination, emergence, and development of pastures in the lower part of the Lauca - Oruro River sub-basin, reducing the availability of forages for livestock. With the purpose of identifying salinity tolerant forage species, the germination capacity in saline solutions of eight species was evaluated: Agropyron elongatum (Host) P. Beauv., Hordeum muticum J. Presl., Bromus catharticus Vahl., X. Triticosecale Wittmarck , Hordeum vulgare L., Atriplex cristata, Trifolium amabile (L.) Kunth., and Suaeda foliosa Moq. The research was carried out in laboratories of the Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences - Technical University of Oruro; Saline solutions with four concentrations of NaCl per one liter of distilled water were applied to the seeds: 2.56, 5.12, 7.68, and 10.54 g, and control without salinity. The results indicate that X. Triticosecale Wittmarck and H. vulgare have greater tolerance to solutions of extreme salinity and little affected in their germination capacity. The seeds of A. elongatum, B. catharticus and S. foliosa significantly reduce germination, however, they manage to germinate at all salinity levels. The seeds of A. cristata and T. amabile are the most sensitive to saline affectation, germination is significantly reduced at all salinity levels, even at the highest concentration. It is concluded that these species can be used as forage for the use of salinized soils, depending on the maximum tolerance determined.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress.

           Jian-Kang Zhu (2003)
          When under salt stress, plants maintain a high concentration of K(+) and a low concentration of Na(+) in the cytosol. They do this by regulating the expression and activity of K(+) and Na(+) transporters and of H(+) pumps that generate the driving force for transport. Although salt-stress sensors remain elusive, some of the intermediary signaling components have been identified. Evidence suggests that a protein kinase complex consisting of the myristoylated calcium-binding protein SOS3 and the serine/threonine protein kinase SOS2 is activated by a salt-stress-elicited calcium signal. The protein kinase complex then phosphorylates and activates various ion transporters, such as the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1.
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            Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants.

             Jian-Kang Zhu (2002)
            Salt and drought stress signal transduction consists of ionic and osmotic homeostasis signaling pathways, detoxification (i.e., damage control and repair) response pathways, and pathways for growth regulation. The ionic aspect of salt stress is signaled via the SOS pathway where a calcium-responsive SOS3-SOS2 protein kinase complex controls the expression and activity of ion transporters such as SOS1. Osmotic stress activates several protein kinases including mitogen-activated kinases, which may mediate osmotic homeostasis and/or detoxification responses. A number of phospholipid systems are activated by osmotic stress, generating a diverse array of messenger molecules, some of which may function upstream of the osmotic stress-activated protein kinases. Abscisic acid biosynthesis is regulated by osmotic stress at multiple steps. Both ABA-dependent and -independent osmotic stress signaling first modify constitutively expressed transcription factors, leading to the expression of early response transcriptional activators, which then activate downstream stress tolerance effector genes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jsab
                Journal of the Selva Andina Biosphere
                J. Selva Andina Biosph.
                Journal of the Selva Andina Biosphere.; Fundación Selva Andina Research Society.; Departamento de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bioquímica & Microbiología. (La Paz, , Bolivia )
                2308-3859
                November 2020
                : 8
                : 2
                : 69-79
                Affiliations
                Oruro orgnameUniversidad Técnica de Oruro UTO orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Naturales FCAN Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia w.choque.m@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2308-38592020000200002 S2308-3859(20)00800200002
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 11
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN

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