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      El gas metano en la producción ganadera y alternativas para medir sus emisiones y aminorar su impacto a nivel ambiental y productivo Translated title: The gas methane in the cattle production and alternative to measure its emissions and to lessen its impact at environmental and productive level

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          Abstract

          Los rumiantes son grandes contribuyentes al calentamiento global y deterioro de la capa de ozono, por la liberación de altas cantidades de gases a la atmósfera, entre ellos, el gas carbónico y el metano. El metano producido se genera principalmente por los procesos fermentativos del alimento que ingresa al rumen. El principal factor biótico a nivel del rumen en la producción de metano son las bacterias anaerobias metanógenas. Estas bacterias utilizan diferentes sustratos para la producción de metano, pero los principales son el H2 y el CO2. La eliminación de estos gases, principalmente del H2 implican la remoción de un factor implicado en la estabilidad del pH ruminal siendo este esencial para una óptima fermentación. Pero a la par se considera la producción de metano como una pérdida de energía potencialmente utilizable. Los efectos de las bacterias metanógenas son dependientes principalmente de los sustratos presentes en la dieta y de las interacciones con otras poblaciones. Intervenciones en la alimentación ofrecida a los animales, orientadas hacia optimizar el proceso de fermentación ruminal, generalmente repercuten en una mejora de los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, debido, entre otros aspectos, a una mejor utilización de la energía. Además, la disminución de las emisiones a la atmósfera cobra gran importancia en la protección del medio ambiente. Diversas evidencias muestran que la tasa de emisión de metano por fermentación ruminal, está relacionada con las características físico-químicas de la dieta, las cuales afectan el nivel de consumo y la frecuencia de alimentación. Por esto una subnutrición contribuye a incrementar las emisiones de metano. La posibilidad de limitar las emisiones de metano por el ganado en sistemas de producción tropical, provee beneficios económicos y medioambientales. Una opción de reducción consiste en la sustitución de tecnologías convencionales por nuevas alternativas concomitantes con una adecuada producción y mínimos efectos medioambientales. Dentro de estas alternativas de potencial uso en trópico está el manejo de pasturas, tendiente hacia mejorar su calidad. Una alternativa de amplio potencial y que hasta el momento ha tomado fuerza por sus múltiples beneficios son los sistemas silvopastoriles, pero poco se ha investigado su efecto sobre la producción de metano ruminal. Para la determinación de emisiones y la eficiencia de las alternativas implementadas, se debe recurrir a metodologías apropiadas que permitan extrapolar los resultados a las condiciones reales in vivo. Dentro de estas alternativas, el sistema in vitro RUSITEC, ha presentado una alta correlación con las características propias del animal. El objetivo de esta revisión es visualizar diferentes factores que determinan las emisiones de metano, alternativas de medición y opciones para disminuir la producción de este gas en los sistemas ganaderos, en aras de una producción más eficiente y que proteja el medio ambiente.

          Translated abstract

          The ruminants are great contributors to the global heating and deterioration of the ozone layer, by the liberation of high amounts of gases to the atmosphere, among them, the carbon dioxide gas and the methane. The methane produced in rumen is generated mainly by fermentative processes of the food that enters to rumen. The main biotic factor at level of rumen in the methane production are the metanogenic anaerobic bacteria. These bacterias use different substrates for the methane production, but the main ones are the H2 and the CO2. The elimination of these gases, mainly of the H2 implies the removal of a factor implied in the stability of pH ruminal being this essential for an optimal fermentation. But at the same way this methane production is considered like a loss of potentially usable energy. The effects of the metanogenic bacteria are employees mainly of the present substrates in the diet and of the interactions with other populations. Interventions in the feeding offered to the animals, oriented towards optimizing the process of ruminal fermentation, repel generally in an improvement of the productive and reproductive parameters, had, among other aspects, to one better use of the energy. In addition, the diminution of the emissions to the atmosphere receives great importance in the protection of the environment. The diverse evidences show that the rate of methane emission by ruminal fermentation, is related to the characteristics physical-chemistries of the diet, which affect the level of consumption and the frequency of feeding. By this the subnutrition contributes to increase the methane emissions. The possibility of limiting the methane emissions by the cattle in tropical production systems, provides economic and environmental benefits. A reduction option consists of the substitution of conventional technologies by new concomitants alternatives with a suitable production and minimums environmental effects. Within these alternatives of potential use in tropic it is the handling of pastures, tending towards improving his quality. An alternative of wide potential and that until the moment has taken force by its multiple benefits are the silvopastoral systems, but little has investigated its effect on the ruminal methane production. For the determination of emissions and the efficiency of the implemented alternatives, one is due to resort to appropriate methodologies that allows to extrapolate the results to the real conditions in alive. Within these alternatives, the system in vitro RUSITEC, has presented a high correlation with the own characteristics of the animal. The objective of this revision is to visualize different factors that determine the methane emissions, measurement alternatives and options to diminish the production of this gas in the cattle systems, for the sake of a more efficient production and than it protects the environment.

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          Most cited references31

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          Methane emissions from cattle.

          Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
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            Manipulating ruminal fermentation: a microbial ecological perspective.

            P Weimer (1998)
            The essential role of ruminal microflora in ruminant nutrition provides the potential for improvement in animal production via altering the numbers or activities of specific classes of microorganisms. Successful alterations will be facilitated by an understanding of the microbial ecology of the rumen based on its mechanistic underpinnings. Demonstrated improvements in ruminal fermentation can be traced to their consonance with well-established principles of microbial ecology (niche occupancy, selective pressure, adaptation, and interactions) and the thermodynamics and kinetics of substrate utilization. Application of these principles to several proposed alterations of the ruminal bacterial population allows a prediction of their relative feasibility. Improving fiber digestion, decreasing protein degradation, and detoxifying feed components that are present in low concentrations will be difficult to achieve in the rumen and are best approached by altering the feed, either genetically or with postharvest treatment. By contrast, the detoxification of feed components present in high concentration, and redirection of electron disposal away from methanogenesis, are more productive targets for microbiological research.
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              Prediction of methane production from dairy cows using existing mechanistic models and regression equations.

              Ruminants may contribute to global warming through the release of methane gas by enteric fermentation. Until now, methane emissions from ruminants were estimated using simple regression equations. The objective of this study was to compare the capacity of dynamic and mechanistic models to that of regression equations to predict methane production from dairy cows. The updated version of the model of Baldwin et al. and a modified version of the model of Dijkstra et al. and the regression equations of Blaxter and Clapperton and Moe and Tyrrell were challenged with 32 experimental diets selected from 13 publications. The predictive capacity of mechanistic models and regression equations was evaluated by comparing predicted and observed methane production using regression analysis. Results of regression showed better prediction of methane production with mechanistic models than with regression equations. The modified model of Dijkstra et al. predicted methane production with the higher R2 (.71) and the smaller error of prediction (19.87% of the observed mean). The model of Baldwin et al. predicted methane production with a similar R2 (.70) but a higher error of prediction (36.93%). However, a large proportion of this error can be eliminated by a correction factor. Predictions using the equations of Moe and Tyrrell and Blaxter and Clapperton were poor (R2 = .42 and .57; error of prediction = 33.72% and 22.93%, respectively). This study demonstrated that from a large variation in diet composition, mechanistic models allow the prediction of methane production more accurately than simple regression equations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rccp
                Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
                Rev Colom Cienc Pecua
                Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín )
                0120-0690
                April 2005
                : 18
                : 1
                : 49-63
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Antioquia Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín Colombia
                Article
                S0120-06902005000100006
                1e90c573-b178-47ee-b9aa-59d33525ff47

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0120-0690&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE

                Animal agriculture
                greenhouse effect,methane generation,ruminants,rusitec,silvopastoral system,efecto invernadero,metanogénesis,rumiante,silvopastoril

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