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      Hitting the Wall—Sensing and Signaling Pathways Involved in Plant Cell Wall Remodeling in Response to Abiotic Stress

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          Abstract

          Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in greater understanding of the dynamics of cell wall deposition and remodeling. The cell wall is the first line of defense against different adverse abiotic and biotic environmental influences. Different abiotic stress conditions such as salinity, drought, and frost trigger production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which act as important signaling molecules in stress activated cellular responses. Detection of ROS by still-elusive receptors triggers numerous signaling events that result in production of different protective compounds or even cell death, but most notably in stress-induced cell wall remodeling. This is mediated by different plant hormones, of which the most studied are jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids. In this review we highlight key factors involved in sensing, signal transduction, and response(s) to abiotic stress and how these mechanisms are related to cell wall-associated stress acclimatization. ROS, plant hormones, cell wall remodeling enzymes and different wall mechanosensors act coordinately during abiotic stress, resulting in abiotic stress wall acclimatization, enabling plants to survive adverse environmental conditions.

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          Most cited references 157

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          Hemicelluloses.

          Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides in plant cell walls that have beta-(1-->4)-linked backbones with an equatorial configuration. Hemicelluloses include xyloglucans, xylans, mannans and glucomannans, and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans. These types of hemicelluloses are present in the cell walls of all terrestrial plants, except for beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans, which are restricted to Poales and a few other groups. The detailed structure of the hemicelluloses and their abundance vary widely between different species and cell types. The most important biological role of hemicelluloses is their contribution to strengthening the cell wall by interaction with cellulose and, in some walls, with lignin. These features are discussed in relation to widely accepted models of the primary wall. Hemicelluloses are synthesized by glycosyltransferases located in the Golgi membranes. Many glycosyltransferases needed for biosynthesis of xyloglucans and mannans are known. In contrast, the biosynthesis of xylans and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans remains very elusive, and recent studies have led to more questions than answers.
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            Comparative analysis of the receptor-like kinase family in Arabidopsis and rice.

            Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to the large RLK/Pelle gene family, and it is known that the Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains >600 such members, which play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense responses. Surprisingly, we found that rice (Oryza sativa) has nearly twice as many RLK/Pelle members as Arabidopsis does, and it is not simply a consequence of a larger predicted gene number in rice. From the inferred phylogeny of all Arabidopsis and rice RLK/Pelle members, we estimated that the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and rice had >440 RLK/Pelles and that large-scale expansions of certain RLK/Pelle members and fusions of novel domains have occurred in both the Arabidopsis and rice lineages since their divergence. In addition, the extracellular domains have higher nonsynonymous substitution rates than the intracellular domains, consistent with the role of extracellular domains in sensing diverse signals. The lineage-specific expansions in Arabidopsis can be attributed to both tandem and large-scale duplications, whereas tandem duplication seems to be the major mechanism for recent expansions in rice. Interestingly, although the RLKs that are involved in development seem to have rarely been duplicated after the Arabidopsis-rice split, those that are involved in defense/disease resistance apparently have undergone many duplication events. These findings led us to hypothesize that most of the recent expansions of the RLK/Pelle family have involved defense/resistance-related genes.
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              Mechanism of Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization

              Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization. Plant adaptation or tolerance to salinity stress involves complex physiological traits, metabolic pathways, and molecular or gene networks. A comprehensive understanding on how plants respond to salinity stress at different levels and an integrated approach of combining molecular tools with physiological and biochemical techniques are imperative for the development of salt-tolerant varieties of plants in salt-affected areas. Recent research has identified various adaptive responses to salinity stress at molecular, cellular, metabolic, and physiological levels, although mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance are far from being completely understood. This paper provides a comprehensive review of major research advances on biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms regulating plant adaptation and tolerance to salinity stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                23 October 2018
                December 2018
                : 7
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia; tingtingg@ 123456student.unimelb.edu.au
                [2 ]Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Potsdam, Germany; Sampathkumar@ 123456mpimp-golm.mpg.de
                [3 ]La Trobe Institute for Agriculture and Food, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia; T.bacic@ 123456latrobe.edu.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lnovakovic@ 123456student.unimelb.edu.au (L.N.); K.Johnson@ 123456latrobe.edu.au (K.L.J.); Tel.: +61-45-204-0513 (L.N.); +61-39-032-7471 (K.L.J.)
                Article
                plants-07-00089
                10.3390/plants7040089
                6313904
                30360552
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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