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      Aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de pacientes con carcinoma hepatocelular en dos centros de referencia de Venezuela Translated title: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in two reference centers Venezuela

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          Abstract

          Introducción: El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) es la neoplasia primaria del hígado más frecuente, constituyendo un problema mundial de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y tasa de mortalidad. Objetivo: evaluar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con carcinoma hepatocelular. Métodos: Estudio de casos consecutivos con revisión retrospectiva de los registros médicos de pacientes con diagnóstico de CHC que acudieron a la consulta de hepatología de dos centros caraqueños entre 1997 y 2011. Se evaluaron características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de estadiaje según Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer, BCLC. Resultados: Se incluyó 116 pacientes con diagnóstico de CHC. La edad media fue 61,34 ± 12,02 años, 75% eran hombres y 89,7% de los pacientes tenían cirrosis hepática subyacente, siendo confirmada histológicamente en 33,7%. El 70,7% de los pacientes tenían alguna complicación asociada a hipertensión portal. El virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) constituyó la principal etiología de enfermedad hepática (31%), alcohol (21,6%), virus de la hepatitis B, VHB (14,7%) y enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica (14,7%). El hepatocarcinoma fue diagnosticado más frecuentemente en pacientes con cirrosis por HBV 15,56%. El 56% de los casos tenían niveles de alfafetoproteína mayores de 300 ng/ml. El lóbulo derecho fue la localización más frecuente (64,7%) y 79,3% de las lesiones mostraron patrón vascular típico en los estudios radiológicos. El estadio tumoral según los criterios de Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) fueron estadio C (37,9%) D (25,9%), B (24,1%), A (7,8%) y 0 (2,6%). Conclusiones: la infección por HCV es la etiología más frecuente de cirrosis hepática en pacientes con CHC, pero la infección por VHB tiene mayor impacto en términos relativos. El diagnóstico se hace en forma tardía (estadios intermedios o avanzados), siendo necesario intensificar medidas de pesquisa en estos pacientes.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main primary liver neoplasia and is a public health problem in the world due to high prevalence and mortality. Objetive: Evaluate clinical and epidemiological characteristics in patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of 116 patients with diagnosis of HCC in two centers of Caracas between 1997 and 2011 was conducted. We evaluated epidemiological, clinical, biochemical and tumor aspects according to Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer in patients with HCC. Results: Mean age was 61.34 ± 12.02 years, 75% were male and 89.7% of patients had liver cirrhosis. Portal hypertension complications (ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, esophageal varices) were present in 70.7% of patients. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was the main etiology of hepatic disease (31%) followed by alcohol (21.6%), hepatitis B virus (14.7%) and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (14.7%). HCC was more frequent in patients with cirrhosis associated to HBV infection. The 56% of patients had alpha-fetoprotein levels higher than 300 ng/ml. The 64.7% of tumors were localized in the right lobe of liver and 79.3% of tumor lesions demonstrated typical pattern in radiologic studies. The most patients had advanced disease according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging classification (Stage C, 37.9%; stage D, 25.9%; stage B, 24.1%; stage A, 7.8% and stage 0, 2.6%). Conclusions: HCV infection was main cause of cirrhosis in patients with HCC, but HBV infection had higher impact in these patients. Our study showed that the diagnosis of these patients undergo late and is very important intensify screening measures in patients with liver cirrhosis.

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          Most cited references14

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          EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

          (2012)
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            Clinical and epidemiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazil

            OBJECTIVES: We performed a national survey to update hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) epidemiology in Brazil and determined the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with HCC in different Brazilian regions. METHODS: Data from 29 centers included 1,405 patients diagnosed with HCC from 2004 to 2009. RESULTS: The median age was 59 (1–92 years old; 78% male). At diagnosis, females were older than males (median age: 62 vs. 59 years old respectively; p<0.0001). Ninety‐eight percent of the patients had cirrhosis (1279/1308). Hepatitis C virus was the main etiology (54%), followed by hepatitis B virus (16%) and alcohol (14%). In Southeastern and Southern Brazil, hepatitis C virus accounted for over 55% of cases. In the Northeast and North, hepatitis C virus accounted for less than 50%, and hepatitis B virus accounted for 22–25% of cases; hepatitis B was more prevalent in the Northern than in the Southern regions. Some 43%, 35%, and 22% of patients were in early, intermediate, and advanced stages respectively. Initial therapies for HCC included chemoembolization or embolization (36%), percutaneous ablation (13%), liver resection (7%), and sorafenib (1%). Liver transplantation was performed in 242 patients (19%), but it was the initial therapy for only 56 patients (4%). CONCLUSION: The epidemiology, classification, and therapy selection for HCC varied among Brazilian regions. Hepatitis C infection was the most common etiology of liver cirrhosis; chemoembolization was the most common therapy employed. Liver cirrhosis was the main risk factor for HCC development in Brazil.
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              Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: a nested case-control study.

              Epidemiologic studies have shown effects of lifestyle-related factors on risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, few cohort studies have incorporated, in a strict and in-depth manner, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections or investigated synergism between such factors. We conducted a nested case-control study using sera stored before hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis in the longitudinal cohort of atomic bomb survivors. The study included 224 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 644 controls that were matched to the cases on gender, age, city, time of serum storage, and method of serum storage, and countermatched on radiation dose. Univariate analysis showed that HBV and HCV infections, alcohol consumption, smoking habit, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus were associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk, whereas coffee drinking was associated with decreased hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Multivariate relative risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (95% confidence interval) were 45.8 (15.2-138), 101 (38.7-263), 70.7 (8.3-601), 4.36 (1.48-13.0), and 4.57 (1.85-11.3), for HBV infection alone, HCV infection alone, both HBV and HCV infections, alcohol consumption of > or =40 g of ethanol per day, and BMI of >25.0 kg/m(2) 10 years before diagnosis, respectively. HBV and HCV infection and BMI of >25.0 kg/m(2) remained independent risk factors even after adjusting for severity of liver fibrosis. Among HCV-infected individuals, the relative risk of hepatocellular carcinoma for a 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was 1.39 (P = 0.003). To limit the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, control of excess weight may be crucial for individuals with chronic liver disease, especially those with chronic hepatitis C.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                June 2013
                : 67
                : 2
                : 66-70
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Dr. Domingo Luciani (IVSS) Venezuela
                [2 ] Instituto Médico la Floresta Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032013000200004
                1e9cdc0f-4d85-4aac-a087-2bbb13281d95

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                Hepatocellular carcinoma,epidemiology,Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer stages,hepatitis C virus (HCV),hepatitis B virus,liver cirrh,Hepatocarcinoma,epidemiología,Clasificación de Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer,virus de hepatitis C,virus de hepatitis B,cirrosis hepática

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