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      Identification and characterization of Anopheles spp. breeding habitats in the Korhogo area in northern Côte d’Ivoire: a study prior to a Bti-based larviciding intervention


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          Although larviciding may be a valuable tool to supplement long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) in West Africa in different ecological settings, its actual impact on malaria burden and transmission has yet to be demonstrated. A randomized controlled trial was therefore undertaken to assess the effectiveness of larviciding using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis ( Bti) in addition to the use of LLINs. In order to optimally implement such a larviciding intervention, we first aimed to identify and to characterize the breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. in the entire study area located in the vicinity of Korhogo in northern Côte d’Ivoire.


          We conducted two surveys during the rainy and the dry season, respectively, in the thirty villages around Korhogo involved in the study. In each survey, water bodies located within a 2 km radius around each village were identified and assessed for the presence of mosquito larvae. We morphologically identified the larvae to the genus level and we characterized all of the habitats positive for Anopheles spp. larvae based on a predefined set of criteria.


          Overall, 620 and 188 water bodies positive for Anopheles spp. larvae were sampled in the rainy and the dry season, respectively. A broad range of habitat types were identified. Rice paddies accounted for 61% and 57% of the habitats encountered in the rainy and the dry season, respectively. In the rainy season, edges of rivers and streams (12%) were the second most abundant habitats for Anopheles spp. larvae. More than 90% of the Anopheles spp. breeding habitats were surrounded by green areas. Dams, ponds and drains produced higher numbers of Anopheles spp. larvae per square meter than rice paddies (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.18–1.94; P = 0.0010). The density of Anopheles spp. larvae was significantly higher in habitats surrounded by low-density housing (RR = 4.81; 95% CI: 1.84–12.60; P = 0.0014) and green areas (RR = 3.96; 95% CI: 1.92–8.16; P = 0.0002] than habitats surrounded by high-density housing. Turbid water [RR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.15–1.76; P = 0.0012) was associated with higher densities of Anopheles spp. larvae. The likelihood of finding mosquito pupae in Anopheles spp. breeding habitats was higher in the dry season (OR = 5.92; 95% CI: 2.11–16.63; P = 0.0007) than in the rainy season.


          Rice paddies represented the most frequent habitat type for Anopheles spp. larvae in the Korhogo area during both the rainy and the dry seasons. Anopheles spp. breeding habitats covered a very large and dynamic area in the rainy season whereas they were fewer in number in the dry season. In this context, implementing a larviciding strategy from the end of the rainy season to the dry season is presumably the most cost-effective strategy.

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          Microbial Larvicide Application by a Large-Scale, Community-Based Program Reduces Malaria Infection Prevalence in Urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

          Background Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Methods and Findings Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491–0.952], P = 0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ≤5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614–0.951], P = 0.016). Conclusions In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres.
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            Impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa: paddies paradox.

            The high population growth rate of the African continent has led to an increased demand for food and is in danger of outstripping agricultural production. In order to meet this need, many governments have sought ways of improving food production by initiating large-scale irrigation projects, involving reclamation of arid and semi-arid areas for the cultivation of crops. Although crop irrigation promises one solution to alleviating hunger and encourages economic growth, irrigation has often been blamed for aggravating disease in local communities. Malaria is one of the major tropical diseases associated with irrigation schemes, and changes in the transmission pattern of this disease following irrigation development have been a perennial subject of debate. It has often been assumed that high numbers of malaria vector Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) resulting from irrigation schemes lead inevitably to increased malaria in local communities. However, recent studies in Africa have revealed a more complex picture. Increased numbers of vectors following irrigation can lead to increased malaria in areas of unstable transmission, where people have little or no immunity to malaria parasites, such as the African highlands and desert fringes. But for most of sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria is stable, the introduction of crop irrigation has little impact on malaria transmission. Indeed, there is growing evidence that for many sites there is less malaria in irrigated communities than surrounding areas. The explanation for this finding is still unresolved but, in some cases at least, can be attributed to displacement of the most endophilic and anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles funestus Giles by An. arabiensis Patton with lower vectorial capacity, as the latter thrives more than the former in ricefields. Similarly, among members of the An. gambiae complex, some cytotypes of An. gambiae sensu stricto are more vectorial than others. For example, the Mopti form has high vectorial capacity and breeds perennially in irrigated sites, whereas the savanna form is often sympatric but more seasonal. Also we suggest that many communities near irrigation schemes benefit from the greater wealth created by these schemes. Consequently irrigation communities often have greater use of bednets, better access to improved healthcare and receive fewer infective bites compared with those outside such development schemes. Thus, in most cases, irrigation schemes in Africa do not appear to increase malaria risk, except in areas of unstable transmission. However, developers should take the opportunity to improve health-care facilities for local communities when planning irrigation schemes wherever they occur.
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              Spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in Western Kenya.

              Studies were conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes and to analyze spatial heterogeneity of mosquito species in the Suba District of western Kenya. A total of 128 aquatic habitats containing mosquito larvae were sampled, and 2,209 anopheline and 10,538 culicine larvae were collected. The habitats were characterized based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house and to the shore of Lake Victoria, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat types. Microscopic identification of third- and fourth-instar anopheline larvae did not yield any Anopheles funestus or other anophelines. A total of 829 An. gambiae s.l. larvae from all habitats were analyzed further by rDNA-polymerase chain reaction to identify individual species within the An. gambiae species complex. Overall, An. arabiensis was the predominant species (63.4%), and An. gambiae was less common (31.4%). The species composition of An. gambiae s.l. varied significantly among the sampling sites throughout Suba District. The larval habitats in the southern area of the district had a higher proportion of An. gambiae than in the northern area. Multiple logistic analysis did not detect any significant association between the occurrence of anopheline larvae and habitat variables, and principal component analysis did not identify key environmental factors associated with the abundance of An. gambiae. However, significant spatial heterogeneity in the relative abundance of An. gambiae within the Suba district was detected. When the effect of larval habitat locality was considered in the analysis, we found that the distance to the nearest house and substrate type were significantly associated with the relative abundance of An. gambiae. Future studies integrating detailed water chemistry analysis, remote sensing technology, and the ecology of predators may be required to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the observed spatial variation of anopheline larval distribution.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                27 March 2019
                27 March 2019
                : 12
                : 146
                [1 ]GRID grid.452477.7, Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), ; Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0382 3424, GRID grid.462603.5, MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, ; Montpellier, France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0382 0205, GRID grid.412037.3, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, , Université d’Abomey Calavi, ; Abomey-Calavi, Benin
                [4 ]GRID grid.449926.4, CEMV, Université Alassane Ouattara, ; Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0564 0509, GRID grid.457337.1, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), ; Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 13 November 2018
                : 20 March 2019
                Funded by: the French Initiative 5 %—Expertise France
                Award ID: 15SANIN213
                Award Recipient :
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                malaria,larvae,rice,larviciding,randomized controlled trial
                malaria, larvae, rice, larviciding, randomized controlled trial


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