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      Study of the Photodegradation of PBDEs in Water by UV-LED Technology

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          Abstract

          Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants that can arrive to water bodies from their use as flame retardants in a wide range of applications, such as electric and electronic devices or textiles. In this study, the photodegradation of PBDEs in water samples when applying UV-LED radiation was studied. Irradiation was applied at three different wavelengths (255 nm, 265 nm and 285 nm) and different exposure times. The best degradation conditions for spiked purified water samples were at 285 nm and 240 min, resulting in degradations between 67% and 86%. The optimized methodology was applied to real water samples from different sources: river, marine, wastewater (effluent and influent of treatment plants) and greywater samples. Real water samples were spiked and exposed to 4 hours of irradiation at 285 nm. Successful photodegradation of PBDEs ranging from 51% to 97% was achieved for all PBDE congeners in the different water samples with the exception of the marine one, in which only a 31% of degradation was achieved.

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          An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment

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            Detailed polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener composition of the widely used penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDE technical flame-retardant mixtures.

            Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used to flame-retard products common in homes and the workplace, and subsequently, they have become widely dispersed in the environment. Detailed compositional knowledge of these complex PBDE mixtures is crucial to a fuller understanding of their toxicological potencies and environmental fate due to selective congener biomagnification, degradation, and transport. Utilizing recenttechnical enhancements and newly available commercial standards, we developed a method capable of analyzing a larger suite of mono- through deca-BDEs. We then characterized the congener composition of six common technical flame-retardant mixtures: two penta-BDE products (DE-71 and Bromkal 70-5DE) two octa-BDE products (DE-79 and Bromkal 79-8DE) and two deca-BDE products (Saytex 102E and Bromkal 82-0DE). PBDEs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Structural conformations based on fragmentation patterns and molecular ions were established by electron-capture negative ionization (ECNI) and electron ionization (El). Sixty-four commercially available PBDE standards were chromato-graphed on two GC columns (DB-1HT and DB-5HT) and relative retention indexes (RRI) calculated. Thirty-nine PBDEs were identified in these products, 29 at concentrations >0.02% by weight. Of these, 12 previously unreported congeners have been confirmed as commercial mixture components. Four of these congeners were detected >0.02% w/w (BDE-144, -171, -180, and -201) and three (BDE-75, -184, and -194) at <0.02%. Five other congeners (four <0.02% by weight) were tentatively identified based on their molecular ion and ECNI fragmentation in the absence of corresponding analytical standards.
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              Study on UV-LED/TiO2 process for degradation of Rhodamine B dye

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                12 July 2021
                July 2021
                : 26
                : 14
                Affiliations
                IQS School of Engineering, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona, Spain; meritxellvalentiq@ 123456iqs.url.edu (M.V.-Q.); rafael.gonzalez@ 123456iqs.url.edu (R.G.-O.); maria.auset@ 123456iqs.url.edu (M.A.)
                Author notes
                Article
                molecules-26-04229
                10.3390/molecules26144229
                8303597
                34299504
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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