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      Salivary Small Extracellular Vesicles Associated miRNAs in Periodontal Status—A Pilot Study

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          Abstract

          This pilot study aims to investigate whether salivary small extracellular vesicle (sEV)-associated microRNAs could act as potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status. Twenty-nine participants (10 who were healthy, nine with gingivitis, 10 with stage III/IV periodontitis) were recruited and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected. Salivary sEVs were isolated using the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and characterised by morphology, EV-protein and size distribution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western Blot and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), respectively. Ten mature microRNAs (miRNAs) in salivary sEVs and saliva were evaluated using RT-qPCR. The discriminatory power of miRNAs as biomarkers in gingivitis and periodontitis versus healthy controls was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. Salivary sEVs were comparable to sEVs morphology, mode, size distribution and particle concentration in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Compared to miRNAs in whole saliva, three significantly increased miRNAs (hsa-miR-140-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p) were only detected in sEVs in periodontitis when compared to that of healthy controls, with a good discriminatory power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96) for periodontitis diagnosis. Our study demonstrated that salivary sEVs are a non-invasive source of miRNAs for periodontitis diagnosis. Three miRNAs that are selectively enriched in sEVs, but not whole saliva, could be potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Chemokines in oral inflammatory diseases: apical periodontitis and periodontal disease.

          The inflammatory oral diseases are characterized by the persistent migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, plasma and mast cells, and osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the last decade, there has been a great interest in the mediators responsible for the selective recruitment and activation of these cell types at inflammatory sites. Of these mediators, the chemokines have received particular attention in recent years. Chemokine messages are decoded by specific receptors that initiate signal transduction events, leading to a multitude of cellular responses, including chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory and bone cells. However, little is known about their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory oral diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings regarding the role of chemokines in periapical and periodontal tissue inflammation, and the integration, into experimental models, of the information about the role of chemokines in human diseases.
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            Host-derived diagnostic markers related to soft tissue destruction and bone degradation in periodontitis.

            A major challenge in clinical periodontics is to find a reliable molecular marker of periodontal tissue destruction with high sensitivity, specificity and utility. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate available literature on 'the utility of molecular markers of soft and hard periodontal tissue destruction'. Based on the focused question, 'What is the utility of molecular markers of soft and hard periodontal tissue destruction', an electronic and manual search was conducted for human studies presenting clinical data for the potential of molecular markers of tissue destruction in biofluids; gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva, and serum. Papers fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. All relevant data from the selected papers were extracted and recorded in separate tables for molecules in GCF, saliva, and serum. Within the defined limits of the Problem/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, the present analysis reveals that (a) no single or combination of markers exists that can disclose periodontal tissue destruction adequately; (b) while the most fruitful source of biomarkers for periodontal destruction appears to be in molecules tightly related to bone and soft tissue destruction, this remains to be objectively demonstrated. Currently, clinical measurements are still the most reliable. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              Q&A: What are exosomes, exactly?

               James Edgar (2016)
              Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet fundamental questions about their biology remain unanswered. Here I explore what exosomes are, highlight the difficulties in studying them and explain the current definition and some of the outstanding issues in exosome biology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                17 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 21
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia; p.han@ 123456uq.edu.au
                [2 ]School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia; mark.bartold@ 123456adelaide.edu.au
                [3 ]Exosome Biology Laboratory, Centre for Clinical Diagnostics, the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia; c.salomongallo@ 123456uq.edu.au
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ochsner Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, LA 70422, USA
                [5 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: s.ivanovski@ 123456uq.edu.au
                Article
                ijms-21-02809
                10.3390/ijms21082809
                7215885
                32316600
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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