This pilot study aims to investigate whether salivary small extracellular vesicle (sEV)-associated microRNAs could act as potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status. Twenty-nine participants (10 who were healthy, nine with gingivitis, 10 with stage III/IV periodontitis) were recruited and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected. Salivary sEVs were isolated using the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and characterised by morphology, EV-protein and size distribution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western Blot and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), respectively. Ten mature microRNAs (miRNAs) in salivary sEVs and saliva were evaluated using RT-qPCR. The discriminatory power of miRNAs as biomarkers in gingivitis and periodontitis versus healthy controls was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. Salivary sEVs were comparable to sEVs morphology, mode, size distribution and particle concentration in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Compared to miRNAs in whole saliva, three significantly increased miRNAs (hsa-miR-140-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p) were only detected in sEVs in periodontitis when compared to that of healthy controls, with a good discriminatory power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96) for periodontitis diagnosis. Our study demonstrated that salivary sEVs are a non-invasive source of miRNAs for periodontitis diagnosis. Three miRNAs that are selectively enriched in sEVs, but not whole saliva, could be potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status.