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      Individual Differences in Reading Development : A Review of 25 Years of Empirical Research on Matthew Effects in Reading

      , , ,
      Review of Educational Research
      American Educational Research Association (AERA)

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          Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades.

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            Orthographic depth and its impact on universal predictors of reading: a cross-language investigation.

            Alphabetic orthographies differ in the transparency of their letter-sound mappings, with English orthography being less transparent than other alphabetic scripts. The outlier status of English has led scientists to question the generality of findings based on English-language studies. We investigated the role of phonological awareness, memory, vocabulary, rapid naming, and nonverbal intelligence in reading performance across five languages lying at differing positions along a transparency continuum (Finnish, Hungarian, Dutch, Portuguese, and French). Results from a sample of 1,265 children in Grade 2 showed that phonological awareness was the main factor associated with reading performance in each language. However, its impact was modulated by the transparency of the orthography, being stronger in less transparent orthographies. The influence of rapid naming was rather weak and limited to reading and decoding speed. Most predictors of reading performance were relatively universal across these alphabetic languages, although their precise weight varied systematically as a function of script transparency.
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              Use of the extreme groups approach: a critical reexamination and new recommendations.

              Analysis of continuous variables sometimes proceeds by selecting individuals on the basis of extreme scores of a sample distribution and submitting only those extreme scores to further analysis. This sampling method is known as the extreme groups approach (EGA). EGA is often used to achieve greater statistical power in subsequent hypothesis tests. However, there are several largely unrecognized costs associated with EGA that must be considered. The authors illustrate the effects EGA can have on power, standardized effect size, reliability, model specification, and the interpretability of results. Finally, the authors discuss alternative procedures, as well as possible legitimate uses of EGA. The authors urge researchers, editors, reviewers, and consumers to carefully assess the extent to which EGA is an appropriate tool in their own research and in that of others.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Review of Educational Research
                Review of Educational Research
                American Educational Research Association (AERA)
                0034-6543
                1935-1046
                June 2014
                June 2014
                : 84
                : 2
                : 203-244
                Article
                10.3102/0034654313509492
                1eb8797d-f9a0-4508-99f8-cfe219f564f9
                © 2014

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