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      The efficacy and safety of panitumumab in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis from five randomized controlled trials

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          Abstract

          Background

          The efficacy of adding panitumumab to chemotherapy remains controversial in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of this combination regimen in patients with mCRC.

          Methods

          The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were comprehensively searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that estimated the efficacy of panitumumab with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with mCRC. Hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was tested using I 2 statistics.

          Results

          Four studies involving a total of 3,066 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The addition of panitumumab to chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =0.84, 95% CI =0.78–0.91, P=0.000) and the objective response rate (ORR) (RR =2.18, 95% CI =1.13–4.22, P=0.021) compared to chemotherapy alone, but no effect was noted on overall survival (OS) (HR =0.97, 95% CI =0.89–1.05, P=0.402). Subgroup analysis based on KRAS gene status revealed that the combined therapy significantly improved PFS (HR =0.71, 95% CI =0.57–0.88, P=0.002) and ORR (RR =2.43, 95% CI =1.21–4.90, P=0.013) in patients with wild-type KRAS tumors. Irinotecan-based chemotherapy plus panitumumab significantly prolonged PFS in patients with mCRC (HR =0.84, 95% CI =0.76–0.94, P=0.002). The combined treatment also increased the incidence of grade 3/4 adverse events.

          Conclusion

          This meta-analysis indicates that the combination of panitumumab and chemotherapy effectively improved PFS and ORR, but it did not prolong OS. However, as the number of studies in the meta-analysis was limited, more large-scale, better-designed RCTs are needed to assess the combination of panitumumab and chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Wild-type KRAS is required for panitumumab efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

          Panitumumab, a fully human antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has activity in a subset of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Although activating mutations in KRAS, a small G-protein downstream of EGFR, correlate with poor response to anti-EGFR antibodies in mCRC, their role as a selection marker has not been established in randomized trials. KRAS mutations were detected using polymerase chain reaction on DNA from tumor sections collected in a phase III mCRC trial comparing panitumumab monotherapy to best supportive care (BSC). We tested whether the effect of panitumumab on progression-free survival (PFS) differed by KRAS status. KRAS status was ascertained in 427 (92%) of 463 patients (208 panitumumab, 219 BSC). KRAS mutations were found in 43% of patients. The treatment effect on PFS in the wild-type (WT) KRAS group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.59) was significantly greater (P < .0001) than in the mutant group (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.36). Median PFS in the WT KRAS group was 12.3 weeks for panitumumab and 7.3 weeks for BSC. Response rates to panitumumab were 17% and 0%, for the WT and mutant groups, respectively. WT KRAS patients had longer overall survival (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.82; treatment arms combined). Consistent with longer exposure, more grade III treatment-related toxicities occurred in the WT KRAS group. No significant differences in toxicity were observed between the WT KRAS group and the overall population. Panitumumab monotherapy efficacy in mCRC is confined to patients with WT KRAS tumors. KRAS status should be considered in selecting patients with mCRC as candidates for panitumumab monotherapy.
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            Randomized, phase III trial of panitumumab with infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) versus FOLFOX4 alone as first-line treatment in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: the PRIME study.

            Panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody that improves progression-free survival (PFS), is approved as monotherapy for patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The Panitumumab Randomized Trial in Combination With Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer to Determine Efficacy (PRIME) was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of panitumumab plus infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) versus FOLFOX4 alone as initial treatment for mCRC. In this multicenter, phase III trial, patients with no prior chemotherapy for mCRC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and available tissue for biomarker testing were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive panitumumab-FOLFOX4 versus FOLFOX4. The primary end point was PFS; overall survival (OS) was a secondary end point. Results were prospectively analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis by tumor KRAS status. KRAS results were available for 93% of the 1,183 patients randomly assigned. In the wild-type (WT) KRAS stratum, panitumumab-FOLFOX4 significantly improved PFS compared with FOLFOX4 (median PFS, 9.6 v 8.0 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.97; P = .02). A nonsignificant increase in OS was also observed for panitumumab-FOLFOX4 versus FOLFOX4 (median OS, 23.9 v 19.7 months, respectively; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.02; P = .072). In the mutant KRAS stratum, PFS was significantly reduced in the panitumumab-FOLFOX4 arm versus the FOLFOX4 arm (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.62; P = .02), and median OS was 15.5 months versus 19.3 months, respectively (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.57; P = .068). Adverse event rates were generally comparable across arms with the exception of toxicities known to be associated with anti-EGFR therapy. This study demonstrated that panitumumab-FOLFOX4 was well tolerated and significantly improved PFS in patients with WT KRAS tumors and underscores the importance of KRAS testing for patients with mCRC.
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              Randomized phase III study of panitumumab with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) compared with FOLFIRI alone as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

              Panitumumab is a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody that improves progression-free survival (PFS) in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of panitumumab plus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) compared with FOLFIRI alone after failure of initial treatment for mCRC by tumor KRAS status. Patients with mCRC, one prior chemotherapy regimen for mCRC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2, and available tumor tissue for biomarker testing were randomly assigned 1:1 to panitumumab 6.0 mg/kg plus FOLFIRI versus FOLFIRI every 2 weeks. The coprimary end points of PFS and overall survival (OS) were independently tested and prospectively analyzed by KRAS status. From June 2006 to March 2008, 1,186 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 and received treatment. KRAS status was available for 91% of patients: 597 (55%) with wild-type (WT) KRAS tumors, and 486 (45%) with mutant (MT) KRAS tumors. In the WT KRAS subpopulation, when panitumumab was added to chemotherapy, a significant improvement in PFS was observed (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.90; P = .004); median PFS was 5.9 months for panitumumab-FOLFIRI versus 3.9 months for FOLFIRI. A nonsignificant trend toward increased OS was observed; median OS was 14.5 months versus 12.5 months, respectively (HR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.04; P = .12); response rate was improved to 35% versus 10% with the addition of panitumumab. In patients with MT KRAS, there was no difference in efficacy. Adverse event rates were generally comparable across arms with the exception of known toxicities associated with anti-EGFR therapy. Panitumumab plus FOLFIRI significantly improved PFS and is well-tolerated as second-line treatment in patients with WT KRAS mCRC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                07 August 2015
                : 9
                : 4471-4478
                Affiliations
                [1 ]General Department, University Hospital, Affiliated to Zhejiang Science-Technology University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lei-lei Zheng, Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou 310009, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 571 8778 3773, Fax +86 571 8706 8001, Email zhengleileihz@ 123456126.com
                Article
                dddt-9-4471
                10.2147/DDDT.S85178
                4535553
                © 2015 Liang and Zheng. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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