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Designing properties of (Na1/2Bix)TiO3-based materials through A-site non-stoichiometry

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      Modification of microstructure and electrical properties due to high A-site diffusion of cations induced by non-stoichiometry during processing.


      Point defects largely determine the properties of functional oxides. So far, limited knowledge exists on the impact of cation vacancies on electroceramics, especially in (Na 1/2Bi 1/2)TiO 3 (NBT)-based materials. Here, we report on the drastic effect of A-site non-stoichiometry on the cation diffusion and functional properties in the representative ferroelectric (Na 1/2Bi 1/2)TiO 3–SrTiO 3 (NBT–ST). Experiments on NBT/ST bilayers and NBT–ST with Bi non-stoichiometry reveal that Sr 2+-diffusion is enhanced by up to six orders of magnitude along the grain boundaries in Bi-deficient material as compared to Bi-excess material with values of grain boundary diffusion ∼10 −8 cm 2 s −1 and ∼10 −13 cm 2 s −1 in the bulk. This also means a nine orders of magnitude higher diffusion coefficient compared to reports from other Sr-diffusion coefficients in ceramics. Bi-excess leads to the formation of a material with a core–shell microstructure. This results in 38% higher strain and one order of magnitude lower remanent polarization. In contrast, Bi-deficiency leads to a ceramic with a grain size six times larger than in the Bi-excess material and homogeneous distribution of compounds. Thus, the work sheds light on the rich opportunities that A-site stoichiometry offers to tailor NBT-based materials microstructure, transport properties, and electromechanical properties.

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Materials and Earth Science
            [2 ]Technische Universität Darmstadt
            [3 ]Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2
            [4 ]D-64287 Darmstadt
            [5 ]Germany
            [6 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering
            [7 ]Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
            [8 ]Martensstraße 5
            [9 ]91058 Erlangen
            [10 ]Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics
            [11 ]Getreidemarkt 9/164 AC
            [12 ]1060 Vienna
            [13 ]Austria
            [14 ]Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
            [15 ]University of Cambridge
            [16 ]Charles Babbage Road 27
            [17 ]CB3 0FS Cambridge
            [18 ]UK
            Journal of Materials Chemistry C
            J. Mater. Chem. C
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            : 6
            : 4
            : 738-744
            © 2018


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