The acute effects of both acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis on erythrocyte transmembrane sodium fluxes were investigated in 15 patients with chronic uremia. We observed a significant (p < 0.0l) stimulation of the Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> pump in both procedures, with a significant correlation to the amount of fluid removed during hemodialysis (r = 0.56, p < 0.03). Outward Na<sup>+</sup> cotransport fluxes significantly rose (p < 0.05) after acetate hemodialysis and decreased (p < 0.05) after bicarbonate hemodialysis. Minor and not significant pre- and posthemodialysis bidirectional changes were observed as regards the intraerythrocyte Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> concentration, passive Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> permeability, and Na<sup>+</sup>, Li<sup>+</sup> countertransport. Hemodialysis may acutely affect the erythrocyte sodium pump and cotransport fluxes, possibly through the modulation of hormonal factors triggered by the extracellular volume changes.