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      Towards an Understanding of the Mechanism of Action of Cyclic AMP and Cyclic GMP in Smooth Muscle Relaxation

      Journal of Vascular Research
      S. Karger AG
      Cyclic GMP, Cyclic AMP, Protein kinases, Smooth muscle, Calcium, Relaxation, EDRF

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          Cyclic GMP (cGMP) mediates the relaxing action of a variety of vasodilator drugs and endogenous vasodilator substances. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) mediates relaxation by β-adrenergic agonists as well as other activators of adenylate cyclase. Both second messengers appear to reduce the concentration of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> in vascular smooth muscle cells, thus affecting relaxation. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells is required for the reduction of Ca<sup>2+</sup> by cAMP and cGMP, suggesting that this enzyme mediates the relaxing effects of both cyclic nucleotides. Although the specific substrate proteins for cGMP-dependent protein kinase are not well characterized in vascular smooth muscle, new evidence indicates that Ca<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase activation by phosphorylation of phospholamban by the kinase may underlie the mechanism of action of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent relaxation.

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          Author and article information

          J Vasc Res
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          23 September 2008
          : 28
          : 1-3
          : 129-137
          Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala., USA
          158852 Blood Vessels 1991;28:129–137
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 9
          Signal Recognition and Transduction in Vascular Smooth Muscle

          General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
          Calcium,Smooth muscle,EDRF,Cyclic GMP,Cyclic AMP,Relaxation,Protein kinases


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