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      Elevated C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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          Abstract

          Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been increasingly linked to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Inflammatory processes associated with OSA may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in these patients. We tested the hypothesis that OSA patients have increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP). We studied 22 patients (18 males and 4 females) with newly diagnosed OSA, who were free of other diseases, had never been treated for OSA, and were taking no medications. We compared CRP measurements in these patients to measurements obtained in 20 control subjects (15 males and 5 females) who were matched for age and body mass index, and in whom occult OSA was excluded. Plasma CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with OSA than in controls (median [range] 0.33 [0.09 to 2.73] versus 0.09 [0.02 to 0.9] mg/dL, P<0.0003). In multivariate analysis, CRP levels were independently associated with OSA severity (F=6.8, P=0.032). OSA is associated with elevated levels of CRP, a marker of inflammation and of cardiovascular risk. The severity of OSA is proportional to the CRP level.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension.

          Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.
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            Association of Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Sleep Apnea, and Hypertension in a Large Community-Based Study

             F Nieto (2000)
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              High altitude increases circulating interleukin-6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and C-reactive protein.

              Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is associated with but may not be sufficient for the development of high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO). Hypoxia is known to induce an inflammatory response in immune cells and endothelial cells. It has been speculated that hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines at high altitude may contribute to the development of HAPO by causing capillary leakage in the lung. We were interested if such an inflammatory response, possibly involved in a later development of HAPO, is detectable at high altitude in individuals without HAPO. We examined the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in two independent studies: study A, Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, three overnight stays at 3458 m, n=12; study B: Capanna Regina Margherita, Italy, 3 overnight stays at 3647 m and one overnight stay at 4559 m, n=10. In both studies, probands showed symptoms of acute mountain sickness but no signs of HAPO. At the Jungfraujoch, IL-6 increased from 0.1+/-0.03 pg/ml to 2. 0+/-0.5 pg/ml (day 2, P=0.03), IL-1ra from 101+/-21 to 284+/-73 pg/ml (day 2, P=0.01), and CRP from 1.0+/-0.4 to 5.8+/-1.5 micrograms/ml (day 4, P=0.01). At the Capanna Margherita, IL-6 increased from 0. 5+/-0.2 pg/ml to 2.0+/-0.8 pg/ml (P=0.02), IL-1ra from 118+/-25 to 213+/-28 pg/ml (P=0.02), and CRP from 0.4+/-0.03 to 3.5+/-1.1 micrograms/ml (P=0.03). IL-8 was below the detection limit of the ELISA (<25 pg/ml) in both studies. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1ra in response to high altitude was delayed and preceded the increase of CRP. We conclude that: (1) circulating IL-6, IL-1ra and CRP are upregulated in response to hypobaric hypoxic conditions at high altitude, and (2) the moderate systemic increase of these inflammatory markers may reflect considerable local inflammation. The existence and the kinetics of high altitude-induced cytokines found in this study support the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in the development of HAPO. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                May 28 2002
                May 28 2002
                : 105
                : 21
                : 2462-2464
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minn.
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.0000018948.95175.03
                12034649
                1edff193-11f7-4e09-b800-0e959a116e30
                © 2002

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