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      Stroke Outcomes With Vorapaxar Versus Placebo in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: Insights From the TRACER Trial

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          Abstract

          Background

          Vorapaxar, a protease‐activated receptor‐1 antagonist, is approved for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events but is associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage.

          Methods and Results

          TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) was a trial of vorapaxar versus placebo among patients with acute coronary syndrome. Strokes were adjudicated by a central events committee. Of 12 944 patients, 199 (1.5%) had ≥1 stroke during the study period (median follow‐up, 477 days). Four patients had a single stroke of unknown type; 195 patients had ≥1 stroke classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic (165 nonhemorrhagic, 28 hemorrhagic, and 2 both). Strokes occurred in 96 of 6473 patients (1.5%) assigned vorapaxar and 103 of 6471 patients (1.6%) assigned placebo. Kaplan‐Meier incidence of stroke for vorapaxar versus placebo was higher for hemorrhagic stroke (0.45% versus 0.14% [hazard ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–6.15]), lower but not significantly different for nonhemorrhagic stroke (1.53% versus 1.98% at 2 years [hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–1.07]), and similar for stroke overall (1.93% versus 2.13% at 2 years [hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–1.24]).

          Conclusions

          Stroke occurred in <2% of patients. Vorapaxar‐assigned patients had increased hemorrhagic stroke but a nonsignificant trend toward lower nonhemorrhagic stroke. Overall stroke frequency was similar with vorapaxar versus placebo.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

          Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).
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            Rivaroxaban versus placebo in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial.

            Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been effective in prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. However, its use after acute coronary syndromes has not been investigated. In this setting, we assessed the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and aimed to select the most favourable dose and dosing regimen. In this double-blind, dose-escalation, phase II study, undertaken at 297 sites in 27 countries, 3491 patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome were stratified on the basis of investigator decision to use aspirin only (stratum 1, n=761) or aspirin plus a thienopyridine (stratum 2, n=2730). Participants were randomised within each strata and dose tier with a block randomisation method at 1:1:1 to receive either placebo or rivaroxaban (at doses 5-20 mg) given once daily or the same total daily dose given twice daily. The primary safety endpoint was clinically significant bleeding (TIMI major, TIMI minor, or requiring medical attention); the primary efficacy endpoint was death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or severe recurrent ischaemia requiring revascularisation during 6 months. Safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug; efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00402597. Three patients in stratum 1 and 26 in stratum 2 never received the study drug. The risk of clinically significant bleeding with rivaroxaban versus placebo increased in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios [HRs] 2.21 [95% CI 1.25-3.91] for 5 mg, 3.35 [2.31-4.87] for 10 mg, 3.60 [2.32-5.58] for 15 mg, and 5.06 [3.45-7.42] for 20 mg doses; p<0.0001). Rates of the primary efficacy endpoint were 5.6% (126/2331) for rivaroxaban versus 7.0% (79/1160) for placebo (HR 0.79 [0.60-1.05], p=0.10). Rivaroxaban reduced the main secondary efficacy endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared with placebo (87/2331 [3.9%] vs 62/1160 [5.5%]; HR 0.69, [95% CI 0.50-0.96], p=0.0270). The most common adverse event in both groups was chest pain (248/2309 [10.7%] vs 118/1153 [10.2%]). The use of an oral factor Xa inhibitor in patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome increases bleeding in a dose-dependent manner and might reduce major ischaemic outcomes. On the basis of these observations, a phase III study of low-dose rivaroxaban as adjunctive therapy in these patients is underway. Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development and Bayer Healthcare AG.
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              Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole versus clopidogrel alone or aspirin and dipyridamole in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia (TARDIS): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 superiority trial

              Summary Background Intensive antiplatelet therapy with three agents might be more effective than guideline treatment for preventing recurrent events in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of intensive antiplatelet therapy (combined aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole) with that of guideline-based antiplatelet therapy. Methods We did an international, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial in adult participants with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) within 48 h of onset. Participants were assigned in a 1:1 ratio using computer randomisation to receive loading doses and then 30 days of intensive antiplatelet therapy (combined aspirin 75 mg, clopidogrel 75 mg, and dipyridamole 200 mg twice daily) or guideline-based therapy (comprising either clopidogrel alone or combined aspirin and dipyridamole). Randomisation was stratified by country and index event, and minimised with prognostic baseline factors, medication use, time to randomisation, stroke-related factors, and thrombolysis. The ordinal primary outcome was the combined incidence and severity of any recurrent stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic; assessed using the modified Rankin Scale) or TIA within 90 days, as assessed by central telephone follow-up with masking to treatment assignment, and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN47823388. Findings 3096 participants (1556 in the intensive antiplatelet therapy group, 1540 in the guideline antiplatelet therapy group) were recruited from 106 hospitals in four countries between April 7, 2009, and March 18, 2016. The trial was stopped early on the recommendation of the data monitoring committee. The incidence and severity of recurrent stroke or TIA did not differ between intensive and guideline therapy (93 [6%] participants vs 105 [7%]; adjusted common odds ratio [cOR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·67–1·20, p=0·47). By contrast, intensive antiplatelet therapy was associated with more, and more severe, bleeding (adjusted cOR 2·54, 95% CI 2·05–3·16, p<0·0001). Interpretation Among patients with recent cerebral ischaemia, intensive antiplatelet therapy did not reduce the incidence and severity of recurrent stroke or TIA, but did significantly increase the risk of major bleeding. Triple antiplatelet therapy should not be used in routine clinical practice. Funding National Institutes of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme, British Heart Foundation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                chiara.melloni@duke.edu
                Journal
                J Am Heart Assoc
                J Am Heart Assoc
                10.1002/(ISSN)2047-9980
                JAH3
                ahaoa
                Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2047-9980
                06 December 2018
                18 December 2018
                : 7
                : 24 ( doiID: 10.1002/jah3.2018.7.issue-24 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Cardiology University of California Irvine Medical Center Orange CA
                [ 2 ] Department of Medicine Duke Clinical Research Institute Durham NC
                [ 3 ] Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford CA
                [ 4 ] Division of Cardiology University of Alberta Edmonton Canada
                [ 5 ] South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute Flinders University and Medical Centre Adelaide Australia
                [ 6 ] Uppsala Clinical Research Center Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden
                [ 7 ] Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Gill Heart Institute University of Kentucky Lexington KY
                [ 8 ] Johnson & Johnson New Brunswick NJ
                [ 9 ] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences University Hospitals Leuven Leuven Belgium
                [ 10 ] Green Lane Cardiovascular Service Auckland City Hospital Auckland New Zealand
                [ 11 ] Department of Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford CA
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Chiara Melloni, MD, MHS, Duke Clinical Research Institute, 2400 Pratt St, Durham, NC 27710. E‐mail: chiara.melloni@ 123456duke.edu
                Article
                JAH33709
                10.1161/JAHA.118.009609
                6405615
                30526198
                © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 13, Words: 6916
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Merck & Co
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Stroke
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jah33709
                18 December 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.5.4 mode:remove_FC converted:18.12.2018

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