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Long-Term Atmospheric Visibility Trends and Their Relations to Socioeconomic Factors in Xiamen City, China

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      Abstract

      Atmospheric visibility (AV), one of the most concerning environmental issues, has shown a continuous decline in China’s urban areas, especially in Southeastern China. Existing studies have shown that AV is affected by air pollutants and climate change, which are always caused by human activities that are linked to socioeconomic factors, such as urban size, residents’ activities, industrial activities, and urban greening. However, the contribution of socioeconomic factors to AV is still not well understood, especially from a long-term perspective, which sometimes leads to ineffective policies. In this study, we used the structural equation model (SEM) in order to quantify the contribution of socioeconomic factors on AV change in Xiamen City, China, between 1987–2016. The results showed that the annual average AV of Xiamen between 1987–2016 was 12.00 km, with a change rate of −0.315 km/year. Urban size, industrial activities, and residents’ activities were found to have a negative impact on AV, while the impact of urban greening on the AV was modest. Among all of the indicators, the number of resident’s vehicles, total retail sales of consumer goods, and household electricity consumption were found to have the highest negative direct impact on the AV. The resident population, urban built-up area, and secondary industry gross domestic product (GDP) were the most important indirect impact factors. Based on our results, we evaluated the existing environmental regulations and policies of Xiamen City.

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      In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM <2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years; reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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        Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution.

        Associations have been found between day-to-day particulate air pollution and increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including cardiopulmonary mortality. However, studies of health effects of long-term particulate air pollution have been less conclusive. To assess the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. All-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide--related pollution were associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-microg/m(3) elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. Long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality.
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          The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

          Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; weicongfufj@ 123456163.com (W.F.); fafulqy@ 123456gmail.com (Q.L.); fjchenziru@ 123456126.com (Z.C.); zhuzhipeng512@ 123456126.com (Z.Z.)
            [2 ]Urban Forestry Research in Action, Department of Forest Resources Management, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; cecil.konijnendijk@ 123456ubc.ca
            [3 ]Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
            [4 ]Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; emily.dang@ 123456hotmail.com
            [5 ]Faculty of built environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia; jinda.qi@ 123456student.unsw.edu.au
            [6 ]College of Architecture & Urban Planning, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China; landwangmo@ 123456outlook.com
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: fjdjw@ 123456fafu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-136-0952-5156
            Journal
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            ijerph
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            MDPI
            1661-7827
            1660-4601
            12 October 2018
            October 2018
            : 15
            : 10
            30322076
            6211101
            10.3390/ijerph15102239
            ijerph-15-02239
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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