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Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

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      Abstract

      Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC 50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC 50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC 50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

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      Most cited references 50

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      Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay

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        Continuous cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei blood stream forms in a medium containing a low concentration of serum protein without feeder cell layers.

         H Hirumi,  K Hirumi (1989)
        Blood stream forms (BSF) of Trypanosoma brucei brucei GUT at 3.1 were propagated in vitro in the absence of feeder layer cells at 37 C, using a modified Iscove's medium (HMI-18). The medium was supplemented with 0.05 mM bathocuproine sulfonate, 1.5 mM L-cysteine, 1 mM hypoxanthine, 0.2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 1 mM sodium pyruvate. 0.16 mM thymidine, and 20% (v/v) Serum Plus (SP) (Hazleton Biologics, Lenexa, Kansas). The latter contained a low level of serum proteins (13 micrograms/ml). Each primary culture was initiated by placing 3.5-4 x 10(6) BSFs isolated from infected mice in a flask containing 5 ml of the medium (HMI-9) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10% SP. The cultures were maintained by replacing the medium every 24 hr for 5-7 days. During this period, many BSFs died. However, from day 4 onward, long slender BSFs increased in number. On days 5-7, trypanosome suspensions were pooled and cell debris was removed by means of diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DE52) column chromatography. Blood stream forms then were collected by centrifugation, resuspended in fresh medium at 7-9 x 10(5)/ml, and transferred to new flasks. Subcultures were maintained by readjusting the BSF density to 7-9 x 10(5)/ml every 24 hr. Concentrations of FBS were reduced gradually at 5-7-day intervals by alternating the amounts of FBS and SP in HMI-9 with 5% FBS and 15% SP, with 2% FBS and 18% SP, and finally with 20% SP (HMI-18). By this method, 2-3 x 10(6) VSFs/ml were obtained consistently every 24 hr. for more than 80 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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          Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents.

          Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of α-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino 62032, Italy; luca.vitali@ 123456unicam.it (L.A.V.); giulio.lupidi@ 123456unicam.it (G.L.); luana.quassinti@ 123456unicam.it (L.Q.); massimo.bramucci@ 123456unicam.it (M.B.); loredana.cappellacci@ 123456unicam.it (L.C.)
            [2 ]Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60131, Italy; orsomando@ 123456univpm.it (G.O.); l.sorci@ 123456univpm.it (L.S.)
            [3 ]Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå 90187, Sweden; farahnaz.ranjbarian@ 123456umu.se (F.R.); anders.hofer@ 123456umu.se (A.H.)
            [4 ]Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, PO Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon; prbiapa@ 123456yahoo.fr
            [5 ]School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Camerino 62032, Italy; dezemona.petrelli@ 123456unicam.it
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: riccardo.petrelli@ 123456unicam.it (R.P.); filippo.maggi@ 123456unicam.it (F.M.); Tel.: +39-0737-402239 (R.P.); +39-0737-404506 (F.M.); Fax: +39-0737-637345 (R.P. & F.M.)
            Contributors
            Role: Academic Editor
            Journal
            Molecules
            Molecules
            molecules
            Molecules
            MDPI
            1420-3049
            13 August 2016
            August 2016
            : 21
            : 8
            27529211 6274054 10.3390/molecules21081065 molecules-21-01065
            © 2016 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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