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      Bone mineral density measurements in vertebral specimens and phantoms using dual-layer spectral computed tomography

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          Abstract

          To assess whether phantomless calcium-hydroxyapatite (HA) specific bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with dual-layer spectral computed tomography are accurate in phantoms and vertebral specimens. Ex-vivo human vertebrae (n = 13) and a phantom containing different known HA concentrations were placed in a semi-anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with different extension rings simulating different degrees of obesity. Phantomless dual-layer spectral CT was performed at different tube current settings (500, 250, 125 and 50 mAs). HA-specific BMD was derived from spectral-based virtual monoenergetic images at 50 keV and 200 keV. Values were compared to the HA concentrations of the phantoms and conventional qCT measurements using a reference phantom, respectively. Above 125 mAs, errors for phantom measurements ranged between −1.3% to 4.8%, based on spectral information. In vertebral specimens, high correlations were found between BMD values assessed with spectral CT and conventional qCT (r ranging between 0.96 and 0.99; p < 0.001 for all) with different extension rings, and a high agreement was found in Bland Altman plots. Different degrees of obesity did not have a significant influence on measurements (P > 0.05 for all). These results suggest a high validity of HA-specific BMD measurements based on dual-layer spectral CT examinations in setups simulating different degrees of obesity without the need for a reference phantom, thus demonstrating their feasibility in clinical routine.

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          Most cited references 37

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          STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING AGREEMENT BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENT

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            Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis

            The Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis was developed by an expert committee of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) in collaboration with a multispecialty council of medical experts in the field of bone health convened by NOF. Readers are urged to consult current prescribing information on any drug, device, or procedure discussed in this publication.
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              Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden

              Summary This report describes the epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Introduction Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in increased risk of fragility fractures which represent the main clinical consequence of the disease. Fragility fractures are associated with substantial pain and suffering, disability and even death for affected patients and substantial costs to society. The aim of this report was to characterize the burden of osteoporosis in the EU27 in 2010 and beyond. Methods The literature on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 was reviewed and incorporated into a model estimating the clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in 2010. Results Twenty-two million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were sustained, comprising 610,000 hip fractures, 520,000 vertebral fractures, 560,000 forearm fractures and 1,800,000 other fractures (i.e. fractures of the pelvis, rib, humerus, tibia, fibula, clavicle, scapula, sternum and other femoral fractures). The economic burden of incident and prior fragility fractures was estimated at € 37 billion. Incident fractures represented 66 % of this cost, long-term fracture care 29 % and pharmacological prevention 5 %. Previous and incident fractures also accounted for 1,180,000 quality-adjusted life years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. Conclusions In spite of the high social and economic cost of osteoporosis, a substantial treatment gap and projected increase of the economic burden driven by the aging populations, the use of pharmacological interventions to prevent fractures has decreased in recent years, suggesting that a change in healthcare policy is warranted.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000123222966, GRID grid.6936.a, Physics Department & Munich School of BioEngineering, , Technical University of Munich, ; Munich, Germany
                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1803-1510, bschwaiger@gmx.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 December 2017
                13 December 2017
                2017
                : 7
                17855
                10.1038/s41598-017-17855-4
                5727524
                29235542
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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