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      Pharmacokinetic interactions and tolerability of berberine chloride with simvastatin and fenofibrate: an open-label, randomized, parallel study in healthy Chinese subjects

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          Fenofibrate (Fbt) is a prodrug that has been used to reduce low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and increase high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Simvastatin (Svt) is a classic lipid-lowering drug that is widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, while berberine chloride (Bbr) is a novel hypolipidemic agent and its blood-lipid-reducing mechanism is distinct from traditional drugs. Currently, drug combination is the trend in treating hyperlipidemia to improve clinical efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug interaction from the perspective of pharmacokinetics between Bbr and Fbt/Svt and the tolerability of combined administration in healthy Chinese subjects.


          Healthy subjects (n=60) were randomly allocated to five treatment groups: Bbr alone, Fbt alone, Svt alone, Bbr plus Fbt, and Bbr plus Svt. The experiment was divided into two parts: single-dose administration and multiple-dose administration. Bbr, Fbt, and Svt were taken once every 8 hours, 24 hours, and 24 hours, respectively, over 7 days in the multidose group. Plasma samples were collected and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to detect drug concentrations.


          No serious adverse reactions or intolerance were observed throughout the trial. More importantly, the combined-administration groups did not show an increase in incidence of side effects. Coadministration of Fbt and Svt with Bbr had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Bbr, except time to maximum concentration, apparent volume of distribution, and apparent clearance. Concurrent coadministration of Bbr had no obvious impact on the pharmacokinetic behavior of Fbt or Svt. Additionally, there was no significant correlation between sex and pharmacokinetic results.


          All treatments were well tolerated. No clinically obvious pharmacokinetic interactions between Bbr and Fbt/Svt were observed with combined administration. The results demonstrated that Bbr can be coadministered safely with Fbt and Svt without dose adjustment.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Learning from berberine: Treating chronic diseases through multiple targets.

          Although advances have been made, chemotherapy for chronic, multifactorial diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes is far from satisfactory. Agents with different mechanisms of action are required. The botanic compound berberine (BBR) has been used as an over-the-counter antibacterial for diarrhea in China for many decades. Recent clinical studies have shown that BBR may be therapeutic in various types of chronic diseases. This review addresses BBR's molecular mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, heart diseases, cancers and inflammation. One of the advantages of BBR is its multiple-target effects in each of these diseases. The therapeutic efficacy of BBR may reflect a synergistic regulation of these targets, resulting in a comprehensive effect against these various chronic disorders. The safety of BBR may be due to its harmonious distribution into those targets. Although the single-target concept is still the principle for drug discovery and research, this review emphasizes the concept of a multiple target strategy, which may be an important approach toward the successful treatment of multifactorial chronic diseases.
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            Prediction of drug-drug interaction potential using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

             Jee Min,  Soo Bae (2017)
            The occurrence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can significantly affect the safety of a patient, and thus assessing DDI risk is important. Recently, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been increasingly used to predict DDI potential. Here, we present a PBPK modeling concept and strategy. We also surveyed PBPK-related articles about the prediction of DDI potential in humans published up to October 10, 2017. We identified 107 articles, including 105 drugs that fit our criteria, with a gradual increase in the number of articles per year. Studies on antineoplastic and immunomodulatory drugs (26.7%) contributed the most to published PBPK models, followed by cardiovascular (20.0%) and anti-infective (17.1%) drugs. Models for specific products such as herbal products, therapeutic protein drugs, and antibody-drug conjugates were also described. Most PBPK models were used to simulate cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated DDIs (74 drugs, of which 85.1% were CYP3A4-mediated), whereas some focused on transporter-mediated DDIs (15 drugs) or a combination of CYP and transporter-mediated DDIs (16 drugs). Full PBPK, first-order absorption modules and Simcyp® software were predominantly used for modeling. Recently, DDI predictions associated with genetic polymorphisms, special populations, or both have increased. The 107 published articles reasonably predicted the DDI potentials, but further studies of physiological properties and harmonization of in vitro experimental designs are required to extend the application scope, and improvement of DDI predictions using PBPK modeling will be possible in the future.
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              Pharmacokinetic interaction of diosmetin and silibinin with other drugs: Inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated biotransformation and displacement from serum albumin


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                20 December 2018
                : 13
                : 129-139
                Department of Pharmacy, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China, ligfpharm@ 123456sina.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Limei Zhao, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, China, Tel/fax +86 24 2392 5108, Email ligfpharm@ 123456sina.com
                © 2019 Li et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                drug-drug interaction, pharmacokinetics, svt, bbr, fbt


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