Objectives: To explore the relationship between the autoantibodies against the β1 and AT1 receptors and left ventricular dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: The autoantibodies against the β1 and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors of T2DM patients with and without hypertension were screened by ELISA. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for left ventricular dilatation. The reversing effect of left ventricular dilatation was evaluated after receptor blocker treatment. Results: The positive rates of autoantibodies against the β1 and AT1 receptors (43.0 and 44.1%, respectively) in T2DM patients with hypertension were significantly higher than those in normotensive patients (16.0 and 10.4%, respectively; all p < 0.01). Furthermore, among T2DM patients with hypertension, the positive rates (61.4 and 64.9%, respectively) in patients with left ventricular dilatation were remarkably higher than those with normal left ventricular dimensions (34.4 and 36.1%, respectively; all p < 0.01). The presence of β1 receptor antibody and AT1 receptor antibody were risk factors for left ventricular dilatation (p < 0.05). The curative effect of metoprolol tartrate and valsartan in reversing left ventricular hypertrophy in the group positive for autoantibodies was much better than in the negative group. Conclusion: The findings show that autoantibodies against the β1 and AT1 receptors may play a role in predicting left ventricular dilatation in T2DM patients in combination with hypertension. Metoprolol tartrate and valsartan are effective and safe in the treatment of these patients.