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      New Insights into Growth Hormone Receptor Function and Clinical Implications

      ,

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      STAT5, Growth Hormone, Metabolism, Receptor activation

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          Abstract

          Although used as a therapeutic for 50 years, it is only recently that the application of molecular techniques has provided a basis for understanding growth hormone’s (GH) clinical actions. This article reviews progress in our current knowledge of the molecular mechanism of growth hormone (GH) receptor activation based on a number of physicochemical techniques, and documents insights gained into the means used by the activated GH receptor to control the expression of genes regulating growth and metabolism. These findings are related to disorders of short stature, and the therapeutic consequences are summarized.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Growth hormone insensitivity associated with a STAT5b mutation.

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            Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer.

            Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.
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              Binding in the growth hormone receptor complex.

               Adam Wells (1996)
              Binding reactions between human growth hormone (hGH) and its receptor provide a detailed account of how a polypeptide hormone activates its receptor and more generally how proteins interact. Through high-resolution structural and functional studies it is seen that hGH uses two different sites (site 1 and site 2) to bind two identical receptor molecules. This sequential dimerization reaction activates the receptor, presumably by bringing the intracellular domains into close proximity so they may activate cytosolic components. As a consequence of this mechanism it is possible to build antagonists to the receptor by introducing mutations in hGH that block binding at site 2 and to build even more potent antagonists by combining these with mutants that enhance binding at site 1. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of all contact residues at the site 1 interface shows that only a small and complementary set of side chains clustered near the center of the interface affects binding. The most important contacts are hydrophobic, and these are surrounded by polar and charged interactions of lesser importance. Kinetic analysis shows for the most part that the important side chains function to maintain the complex, not to guide the hormone to the receptor. Hormone-induced homodimerization or heterodimerization reactions are turning out to be pervasive mechanisms for signal transduction. Moreover, the molecular recognition principles seen in the hGH-receptor complex are likely to generalize to other protein-protein complexes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                January 2008
                08 January 2008
                : 69
                : 3
                : 138-145
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Dentistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane and bInstitute for Molecular Bioscience and School of Biomedical Science, St. Lucia, Australia
                Article
                112586 Horm Res 2008;69:138–145
                10.1159/000112586
                18219216
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 8
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