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      CT of amebic liver abscess: different morphological types with different clinical features


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          To identify different morphological types of amebic liver abscess (ALA) based on CT findings and to assess whether they have different clinical features.


          CT images of 112 symptomatic patients with ALA were analyzed to identify the imaging features distinctive of each morphological type. The following CT findings were investigated: the presence of abscess wall, rim enhancement, edge characteristic, septa, intermediate density zone, and peripheral hypodensity. Abscesses from each type were further evaluated for their clinical presentations, laboratory findings and outcomes.


          We identified three types of ALAs: type I, II and III. Type I abscesses (66%) were characterized by absent or incomplete walls, ragged edges and peripheral septa; their edges exhibited irregular and interrupted enhancement. Type II (28%) had a complete wall characterized by rim enhancement and peripheral hypodense halo. Type III (6%) demonstrated a wall but without enhancement. Clinically, type I abscesses presented acutely with severe disease. They had significantly deranged laboratory parameters, higher incidence of rupture and higher rate of inpatient or intensive care unit admission. The severity of the disease prompted immediate percutaneous drainage in most type I abscesses (81%). Two of them died from multiple organ failure. The type II or III abscesses, on the other hand, had delayed presentations with mild to moderate disease, with near normal laboratory findings.


          ALAs have three different CT morphological types, with different clinical and laboratory features. Percutaneous drainage is indicated in most of type I abscesses.

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          Most cited references25

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          The infected liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

          Recent technologic advances have significantly enhanced the role of imaging in the detection, characterization, and management of infectious diseases involving the liver. In addition, imaging-guided percutaneous drainage has greatly improved the clinical treatment of patients with focal liver abscess. Infectious liver diseases can be accurately evaluated with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Characteristic changes in US echogenicity, CT attenuation, or MR imaging signal intensity and typical enhancement patterns can contribute to the diagnosis of specific infectious diseases, including abscesses, parasitic diseases, fungal diseases, granulomatous diseases, viral hepatitis, and other less common infections. CT is particularly helpful in revealing the presence of calcifications and gas and in detailing the enhancement pattern. The multiplanar capability of MR imaging and its sensitivity to small differences in tissue composition increase its specificity for certain hepatic infections, including hydatid cyst and candidiasis. Radiologic findings may be sufficient to obviate aspiration or histologic examination, although in most instances they are less specific. Nevertheless, imaging findings taken together with appropriate clinical information may provide the most likely diagnosis, even if biopsy is sometimes required for confirmation.
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            Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses.

            Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses are the two most common hepatic abscesses. Amebic abscesses are more common in areas where Entamoeba histolytica is endemic, whereas pyogenic abscesses are more common in developed countries. Pyogenic abscess severity is dependent on the bacterial source and the underlying condition of the patient. Amebic liver abscess is more prevalent in individuals with suppressed cell-mediated immunity, men, and younger people. The right lobe of the liver is the most likely site of infection in both types of hepatic abscess. Patients usually present with a combination of fever, right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, and hepatomegaly. Jaundice is more common in the pyogenic abscess. The diagnosis is often delayed and is usually made through a combination of radiologic imaging and microbiologic, serologic, and percutaneous techniques. Treatment involves antibiotics along with percutaneous drainage or surgery.
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              Is Open Access

              Clinical, Laboratory, and Management Profile in Patients of Liver Abscess from Northern India

              Objective. To describe the clinical profile, microbiological aetiologies, and management outcomes in patients with liver abscess. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May, 2011, to April, 2013, on 200 consecutive liver abscess patients at PGIMER and Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi. History, examination, and laboratory investigations were recorded. Ultrasound guided aspiration was done and samples were investigated. Chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis were performed to test association. Results. The mean age of patients was 41.13 years. Majority of them were from lower socioeconomic class (67.5%) and alcoholic (72%). The abscesses were predominantly in right lobe (71%) and solitary (65%). Etiology of abscess was 69% amoebic, 18% pyogenic, 7.5% tubercular, 4% mixed, and 1.5% fungal. Percutaneous needle aspiration was done in 79%, pigtail drainage in 17%, and surgical intervention for rupture in 4% patients. Mortality was 2.5%, all reported in surgical group. Solitary abscesses were amoebic and tubercular whereas multiple abscesses were pyogenic (P = 0.001). Right lobe was predominantly involved in amoebic and pyogenic abscesses while in tubercular abscesses left lobe involvement was predominant (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The commonest presentation was young male, alcoholic of low socioeconomic class having right lobe solitary amoebic liver abscess. Appropriate use of minimally invasive drainage techniques reduces mortality.

                Author and article information

                Abdom Radiol (NY)
                Abdom Radiol (NY)
                Abdominal Radiology (New York)
                Springer US (New York )
                24 April 2021
                : 1-11
                [1 ]GRID grid.413618.9, ISNI 0000 0004 1767 6103, Department of Radiodiagnosis, , All India Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Patna, Bihar India
                [2 ]GRID grid.413618.9, ISNI 0000 0004 1767 6103, Department of Gastroenterology, , All India Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Patna, Bihar India
                [3 ]GRID grid.413618.9, ISNI 0000 0004 1767 6103, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, , All India Institute of Medical Sciences, ; Patna, Bihar India
                Author information
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 28 February 2021
                : 8 April 2021
                : 10 April 2021

                severe liver abscess,abscess classification,abscess rupture,rim enhancement,amebic colitis,percutaneous drainage


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