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      The genus Lycianthes (Solanaceae, Capsiceae) in Mexico and Guatemala

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          Lycianthes , the third most species-rich genus in the Solanaceae , is distributed in both the New and Old Worlds and is especially diverse in Mexico. Here we provide an identification key, taxonomic descriptions, distribution maps, and illustrations of specimens, trichomes, flowers, and fruits for the 53 known Lycianthes taxa of Mexico and Guatemala. The new combination Lycianthes scandens (Mill.) M.Nee is made and replaces the name Lycianthes lenta (Cav.) Bitter, which is placed in synonymy. Within L. scandens , two varieties are recognized ( Lycianthes scandens var. scandens and Lycianthes scandens var. flavicans (Bitter) J.Poore & E.Dean, comb. nov.). In addition, one new species ( Lycianthes rafatorresii E.Dean, sp. nov.) is described from eastern Mexico, and 10 names (either recognized taxa or synonyms of recognized taxa) are lectotypified, including the names Solanum heteroclitum Sendtn., S. rantonnetii Carrière, and S. synantherum Sendtn. The species L. multiflora Bitter and L. synanthera (Sendtn.) Bitter are excluded from the treatment, as research indicates that they do not occur in Mexico and Guatemala, however full synonymy for both names is given.

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          Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.

          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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            Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico

            Abstract: An updated inventory of the native vascular plants of Mexico records 23,314 species, distributed in 2,854 genera, 297 families, and 73 orders. The flora includes 1,039 species of ferns and lycophytes, 149 gymnosperms, and 22,126 angiosperms. On average, the number of synonyms per species is 1.3 (mode = 1). The number of species places Mexico as the country with the fourth largest floristic richness in the world, although among the non-insular countries, by its number of endemic species (about 50%) is second only surpassed by South Africa. The species distribution among higher taxonomic categories, and the richness and endemism values in the 32 states of Mexico are discussed. This compilation allows us to assess the flora's contribution to the overall Mexican biodiversity.
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              A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree

              Background The Solanaceae is a plant family of great economic importance. Despite a wealth of phylogenetic work on individual clades and a deep knowledge of particular cultivated species such as tomato and potato, a robust evolutionary framework with a dated molecular phylogeny for the family is still lacking. Here we investigate molecular divergence times for Solanaceae using a densely-sampled species-level phylogeny. We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. Results Our densely-sampled phylogeny shows strong support for all previously identified clades of Solanaceae and strongly supported relationships between the major clades, particularly within Solanum. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade. The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato & potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7–10 Ma, Solanum & Capsicum c. 19 Ma (95% HPD 17–21), and Solanum & Nicotiana c. 24 Ma (95% HPD 23–26). Conclusions Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family. The chronogram now includes 40% of known species and all but two monotypic genera, and is one of the best sampled angiosperm family phylogenies both in terms of taxon sampling and resolution published thus far. The increased resolution in the chronogram combined with the large increase in species sampling will provide much needed data for the examination of many biological questions using Solanaceae as a model system.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                27 November 2020
                : 168
                : 1-333
                [1 ] UC Davis Center for Plant Diversity, Plant Sciences M.S. 7, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA University of California Davis United States of America
                [2 ] Laboratorio Nacional de Identificación y Caracterización Vegetal (LaniVeg), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Camino Ramón Padilla Sánchez 2100, 45110 Nextipac, Zapopan, Jalisco, México Universidad de Guadalajara Guadalajara Mexico
                [3 ] 26776 US Hwy 14, Richland Center, WI 53581, USA Unaffiliated Richland Center United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ellen Dean ( eadean@ 123456ucdavis.edu )

                Academic editor: Sandy Knapp

                Ellen Dean, Jennifer Poore, Marco Antonio Anguiano-Constante, Michael H. Nee, Hannah Kang, Thomas Starbuck, Annamarie Rodrígues, Matthew Conner

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: National Science Foundation 100000001 http://doi.org/10.13039/100000001
                Research Article
                Central America and the Caribbean
                North America

                Plant science & Botany

                guatemala, lycianthes , mexico, neotropics, solanaceae , taxonomy


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