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      Cardiovascular disease risk in women with pre-eclampsia: systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          There is increasing evidence that pre-eclampsia, a principal cause of maternal morbidity, may also be a risk factor for future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to assess the current evidence and quantify the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular events and hypertension associated with prior diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. Medline and Embase were searched with no language restrictions, as were core journals and reference lists from reviews up until January 2012. Case-control and cohort studies which reported cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases or hypertension diagnosed more than 6 weeks postpartum, in women who had a history of pre-eclampsia relative to women who had unaffected pregnancies, were included. Fifty articles were included in the systematic review and 43 in the meta-analysis. Women with a history of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia were at significantly increased odds of fatal or diagnosed CVD [odds ratio (OR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.87, 2.78], cerebrovascular disease (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.43, 2.21) and hypertension [relative risk (RR) = 3.13, 95% CI 2.51, 3.89]. Among pre-eclamptic women, pre-term delivery was not associated with an increased risk of a future cardiovascular event (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.79, 2.22). Women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia are at increased risk of future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, with an estimated doubling of odds compared to unaffected women. This has implications for the follow-up of all women who experience pre-eclampsia, not just those who deliver pre-term. This association may reflect shared common risk factors for both pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

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              Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study.

              Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. We established a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. The relation of smoking, history of hypertension or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins (Apo), and psychosocial factors to myocardial infarction are reported here. Odds ratios and their 99% CIs for the association of risk factors to myocardial infarction and their population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. Smoking (odds ratio 2.87 for current vs never, PAR 35.7% for current and former vs never), raised ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (3.25 for top vs lowest quintile, PAR 49.2% for top four quintiles vs lowest quintile), history of hypertension (1.91, PAR 17.9%), diabetes (2.37, PAR 9.9%), abdominal obesity (1.12 for top vs lowest tertile and 1.62 for middle vs lowest tertile, PAR 20.1% for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), psychosocial factors (2.67, PAR 32.5%), daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.70, PAR 13.7% for lack of daily consumption), regular alcohol consumption (0.91, PAR 6.7%), and regular physical activity (0.86, PAR 12.2%), were all significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p<0.0001 for all risk factors and p=0.03 for alcohol). These associations were noted in men and women, old and young, and in all regions of the world. Collectively, these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the PAR in men and 94% in women. Abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and alcohol, and regular physical activity account for most of the risk of myocardial infarction worldwide in both sexes and at all ages in all regions. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide and have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Epidemiology
                Eur J Epidemiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0393-2990
                1573-7284
                January 2013
                February 9 2013
                January 2013
                : 28
                : 1
                : 1-19
                Article
                10.1007/s10654-013-9762-6
                23397514
                1f1108fa-6e0e-48bf-a83e-60a7e1b9a5aa
                © 2013

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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