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      Neonatal and Maternal Outcomes among Women with Glomerulonephritis

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          Abstract

          Background: The outcomes of pregnancy in women with renal diseases remain controversial. The purpose of the study was to report fetal and maternal outcomes among women with glomerular disease in comparison with healthy pregnant women and a review of the current literature on this issue. Methods: Retrospective analysis included 72 pregnancies in 62 women with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) (in 65.3% of cases, immunoglobulin A nephropathy was found). The control group consisted of 315 healthy pregnant women. We assessed fetal (prematurity, low birth weight, hypotrophy, fetal malformation, or intrauterine death) and maternal (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, deterioration in kidney function, and maternal death) outcomes. Descriptive data analysis, Fisher’s exact test, unpaired Student’s t test, and ANOVA were performed. Results: Hypertension prevalence among the GN group and controls was 76.4 and 10.2%, respectively. Preeclampsia complicated 29.2% of pregnancies among women with GN and 2.9% of controls. In 8.3% of patients, at least a 50% decrease in GFR during pregnancy was observed. Preterm delivery prevalence in the GN group and controls was 74.7 and 12.7%, respectively. Hypotrophy was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases from the GN group and 5.4% of controls. The analysis showed that low estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, and proteinuria were risk factors of adverse neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Women with GN are a risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As pregnancy complications are more prevalent across all the CKD stages, even in patients with near-normal kidney function, they require specialized care. It might be advisable to screen pregnant women for the presence of CKD, as especially in the early stage, it is often asymptomatic. Both hypertension and proteinuria are risk factors for neonatal and maternal complications.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A systematic review and meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

          Studies of the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its pregnancy complications have yielded conflicting results. Major limitations of these studies relate to their small numbers of patients and retrospective designs. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of pregnancy outcomes in women with SLE and a meta-analysis of the association of lupus nephritis with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We searched electronic databases from 1980 to 2009 and reviewed papers with validity criteria. Random-effects analytical methods were used to evaluate pregnancy complications rates. Thirty-seven studies with 1842 patients and 2751 pregnancies were included. Maternal complications included lupus flare (25.6%), hypertension (16.3%), nephritis (16.1%), pre-eclampsia (7.6%), and eclampsia (0.8%). The induced abortion rate was 5.9%, and when excluded, fetal complications included spontaneous abortion (16.0%), stillbirth (3.6%), neonatal deaths (2.5%), and intrauterine growth retardation (12.7%). The unsuccessful pregnancy rate was 23.4%, and the premature birth rate was 39.4%. Meta-regression analysis showed statistically significant positive associations between premature birth rate and active nephritis and increased hypertension rates in subjects with active nephritis or a history of nephritis. History of nephritis was also associated with pre-eclampsia. Anti-phospholipid antibodies were associated with hypertension, premature birth, and an increased rate of induced abortion. In patients with SLE, both lupus nephritis and anti-phospholipid antibodies increase the risks for maternal hypertension and premature births. The presented evidence further supports timing of pregnancy relative to SLE activity and multispecialty care of these patients.
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            Chronic kidney disease in pregnancy.

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              Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction

              Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2020
                July 2020
                01 July 2020
                : 51
                : 7
                : 534-541
                Affiliations
                a1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                bDepartment of Transplantation Medicine and Nephrology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                *Natalia Mazanowska, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, pl. Starynkiewicza 1/3, PL–02-015 Warszawa (Poland), natalia.mazanowska@gmail.com
                Article
                508600 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:534–541
                10.1159/000508600
                32610308
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Patient-Oriented, Translational Research: Research Article

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