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      LPS immune challenge reduces arcuate nucleus TSHR and CART mRNA and elevates plasma CART peptides

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          The aim was to examine the impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation on expression of mRNA for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and its ligands in CNS areas of relevance for feeding controls and metabolism. Lipopolysaccharide effects on plasma levels of TSH and CART peptides were also examined.


          Lipopolysaccharide (150–200 μg/mouse) was injected in C57BL/6J mice and tissue and plasma samples taken after 24 h. To establish if plasma increase in CART peptide levels were prostanoid dependent, indomethacin was given via the drinking water beginning 48 h prior to LPS. We evaluated mRNA expression for CART, TSHR, TSHβ, and thyrostimulin in brain and pituitary extracts. Plasma levels of TSH, CARTp, and serum amyloid P component were analyzed by ELISA.


          Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. CART mRNA expression was reduced in the arcuate nucleus but elevated in the pituitary of mice treated with Lipopolysaccharide, whereas plasma TSH remained unchanged. Plasma CART peptide concentration increased after LPS treatment in a prostanoid-independent manner, and CART peptide levels correlated positively to degree of inflammation.


          Our findings suggest that central and peripheral CART is affected by acute inflammation. Considering the role of the arcuate nucleus in feeding controls, our data highlight TSHR and CART as putative neuroendocrine signaling components that respond to inflammation, perhaps to maintain weight and metabolic homeostasis during states of disease.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin.

           N Vrang,  L Thim,  U Ribel (1998)
          The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger RNA in the arcuate nucleus. In animal models of obesity with disrupted leptin signalling, CART mRNA is almost absent from the arcuate nucleus. Peripheral administration of leptin to obese mice stimulates CART mRNA expression. When injected intracerebroventricularly into rats, recombinant CART peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding, and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y. An antiserum against CART increases feeding in normal rats, indicating that CART may be an endogenous inhibitor of food intake in normal animals.
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            Distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain following intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration.

            The central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus, is intimately involved in the coordination of various aspects of the inflammatory response, including the generation of fever. We used intravenous injections of bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 125 micrograms/kg) to stimulate the acute phase response and mapped the resultant distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain. In addition, we compared the patterns of Fos distribution with the thermoregulatory responses elicited by the LPS. Administration of LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent pattern of Fos-like immunoreactivity throughout the rat brain consistent with a coordinated autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral response to the LPS challenge that was most pronounced 2 hours following injection. Specifically, Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed in key autonomic regulatory nuclear groups, including the insular and prelimbic cortices, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the rostral and caudal levels of the ventrolateral medulla. In addition, a significant sustained elevation of Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed in a cell group adjacent to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, which we termed the ventromedial preoptic area. This sustained elevation of Fos-like immunoreactivity coupled with the alterations in body temperature elicited by LPS leads us to hypothesize that the ventromedial preoptic area may be a key site for the initiation of fever during endotoxemia.
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              Immunohistochemical localization of novel CART peptides in rat hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland.

              CART peptide specific polyclonal antisera were raised in rabbits. The antisera were raised to CART peptide fragments that span most of the predicted CART protein. The specificity of each antisera was demonstrated by blockade of immunostaining by the immunizing peptide but not by the other CART peptide fragments. In the hypothalamus and pituitary of colchicine and noncolchicine treated rats, immunostaining was observed in cell bodies, fibers and varicosities. Clusters of cells were also stained in the adrenal medulla. It is noteworthy that cellular immunostaining was only found in areas previously shown to express CART mRNA. These findings indicate the presence of CART peptide(s) in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal gland. Furthermore, we also present evidence for the possible processing of the CART pro-peptide into smaller peptide fragments. These neuroanatomical findings suggest a role of CART peptides in hypothalamic, pituitary and adrenal function.

                Author and article information

                BMC Neurosci
                BMC Neurosci
                BMC Neuroscience
                BioMed Central (London )
                11 December 2019
                11 December 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9919 9582, GRID grid.8761.8, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, , Sahlgrenska Academy, ; Gothenburg, Sweden
                [2 ]ISNI 000000009445082X, GRID grid.1649.a, Department of Surgery, , Sahlgrenska University Hospital, ; Region Västra Götaland 41345 Gothenburg, Sweden
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004200, Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare;
                Funded by: Stiftelsen Assar Gabrielssons Fond (SE)
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007212, Västra Götalandsregionen;
                Award ID: ALF-LUA
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003744, Stiftelsen Handlanden Hjalmar Svenssons;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003745, Stiftelserna Wilhelm och Martina Lundgrens;
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2019


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