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      Chemical composition and evaluation of the antibacterial and Cytotoxic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Myracrodruon urundeuva

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          This study evaluated the in vitro activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Myracrodruon urundeuva.


          The oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and characterized by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution technique and the MIF was determined by using growth indicator CTT (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium) and CBM in BHI agar. The oil’s cytotoxicity was evaluated in HeLa, HEK-293, and Vero E6 cells using MTT, 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium.


          The oil showed chemical markers, including α-pinene (87.85%), trans-caryophyllene (1.57%), limonene (1.49%) and β -pinene (1.42%), and activity against all strains: Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = MBC = 0.22 mg/mL), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC = 0.11 mg/mL and MBC = 0.22 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (MIC = 0.88 mg/mL and MBC = 1.75 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = MBC = 7 mg/mL) and Salmonella Enteritidis (MIC = MBC = 0.44 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the oil is not toxic and has slight antitumor activity.


          We conclude that the M. urundeuva oil results are promising, with prospects of being pharmacologically viable.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

          A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
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            Biological effects of essential oils--a review.

            Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components. In vitro physicochemical assays characterise most of them as antioxidants. However, recent work shows that in eukaryotic cells, essential oils can act as prooxidants affecting inner cell membranes and organelles such as mitochondria. Depending on type and concentration, they exhibit cytotoxic effects on living cells but are usually non-genotoxic. In some cases, changes in intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by essential oils can be associated with their capacity to exert antigenotoxic effects. These findings suggest that, at least in part, the encountered beneficial effects of essential oils are due to prooxidant effects on the cellular level.
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              Antibiotic resistance is ancient.

              The discovery of antibiotics more than 70 years ago initiated a period of drug innovation and implementation in human and animal health and agriculture. These discoveries were tempered in all cases by the emergence of resistant microbes. This history has been interpreted to mean that antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a modern phenomenon; this view is reinforced by the fact that collections of microbes that predate the antibiotic era are highly susceptible to antibiotics. Here we report targeted metagenomic analyses of rigorously authenticated ancient DNA from 30,000-year-old Beringian permafrost sediments and the identification of a highly diverse collection of genes encoding resistance to β-lactam, tetracycline and glycopeptide antibiotics. Structure and function studies on the complete vancomycin resistance element VanA confirmed its similarity to modern variants. These results show conclusively that antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon that predates the modern selective pressure of clinical antibiotic use. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                Author and article information

                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9687 399X, GRID grid.411233.6, Centro de Biociências (CB), Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), ; Natal, RN 59072-970 Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 0329, GRID grid.8395.7, Centro de Ciências, Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica, , Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), ; Fortaleza, CE 60021-940 Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9687 399X, GRID grid.411233.6, Centro de Biociências (CB), Departamento de Morfologia, , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), ; Natal, RN 59072-970 Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9687 399X, GRID grid.411233.6, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), ; Natal, RN 59072-970 Brazil
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9687 399X, GRID grid.411233.6, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra (CCET), Instituto de Química, , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), ; Natal, RN 59072-970 Brazil
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9687 399X, GRID grid.411233.6, Instituto de Medicina Tropical (IMT), , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), ; Natal, RN 59072-970 Brazil
                +55-084-98781-3127 ,
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                22 August 2017
                22 August 2017
                : 17
                28830478 5568258 1918 10.1186/s12906-017-1918-6
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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