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      Inoculation of Triatoma Virus (Dicistroviridae: Cripavirus) elicits a non-infective immune response in mice

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          Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, non-enveloped, +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests. Little is known about the dicistrovirus replication mechanism or gene function, and any knowledge on these subjects comes mainly from comparisons with mammalian viruses from the Picornaviridae family. Due to its peculiar genome organization and characteristics of the per os viral transmission route, dicistroviruses make good candidates for use as biopesticides. Triatoma virus (TrV) is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans ( Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of the human trypanosomiasis disease called Chagas disease. TrV was postulated as a potential control agent against Chagas’ vectors. Although there is no evidence that TrV nor other dicistroviruses replicate in species outside the Insecta class, the innocuousness of these viruses in humans and animals needs to be ascertained.


          In this study, RT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect the infectivity of this virus in Mus musculus BALB/c mice.


          In this study we have observed that there is no significant difference in the ratio IgG2a/IgG1 in sera from animals inoculated with TrV when compared with non-inoculated animals or mice inoculated only with non-infective TrV protein capsids.


          We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, TrV is unable to replicate in mice. This study constitutes the first test to evaluate the infectivity of a dicistrovirus in a vertebrate animal model.

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          Most cited references 28

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          A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder.

          In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50 to 90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naive bees suggests that infection may contribute to CCD. We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey microflora in CCD hives, normal hives, and imported royal jelly. Candidate pathogens were screened for significance of association with CCD by the examination of samples collected from several sites over a period of 3 years. One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD.
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            Chagas disease: a new worldwide challenge.

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              Honey bee viruses.

              Viruses are significant threats to the health and well-being of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To alleviate the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Although knowledge of honey bee viruses has been accumulated considerably in the past three decades, a comprehensive review to compile the various aspects of bee viruses at the molecular level has not been reported. This chapter summarizes recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of honey bee viruses as well as their interactions with their honey bee hosts. The future prospects of research of honey bee viruses are also discussed in detail. The chapter has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honey bee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                15 March 2013
                : 6
                : 66
                [1 ]Centre for Malaria and Tropical Diseases - Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical - Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
                [2 ]Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC-UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940, Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain
                [3 ]C Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, Leioa, Bizkaia, 48940, Spain
                [4 ]Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CCT-La Plata-CONICET - UNLP) 2-584, La Plata, 1900, Argentina
                [5 ]Departamento de Bioquímica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940, Leioa, Spain
                Copyright ©2013 Querido et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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