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      Health hazards and waste management.

      British Medical Bulletin
      Environmental Exposure, adverse effects, Environmental Health, Hazardous Substances, Hazardous Waste, Humans, Incineration, Refuse Disposal, Waste Management

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          Different methods of waste management emit a large number of substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Raised incidence of low birth weight births has been related to residence near landfill sites, as has the occurrence of various congenital malformations. There is little evidence for an association with reproductive or developmental effects with proximity to incinerators. Studies of cancer incidence and mortality in populations around landfill sites or incinerators have been equivocal, with varying results for different cancer sites. Many of these studies lack good individual exposure information and data on potential confounders, such as socio-economic status. The inherent latency of diseases and migration of populations are often ignored. Waste management workers have been shown to have increased incidence of accidents and musculoskeletal problems. The health impacts of new waste management technologies and the increasing use of recycling and composting will require assessment and monitoring.

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