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      Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      burn, heparin, combined treatment

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          Abstract

          Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Role of endothelium in thrombosis and hemostasis.

          Vascular endothelium is strategically located at the interface between tissue and blood. It is pivotal for protecting against vascular injury and maintaining blood fluidity. Normal endothelium releases prostacyclin and nitric oxide, potent inhibitors of platelet and monocyte activation and vasodilators. Their syntheses are governed by isoforms of enzymes. Normal endothelial surface expresses ecto-adenosine diphosphatase, which degrades adenosine diphosphate and inhibits platelet aggregation; thrombomodulin, which serves as a binding site for thrombin to activate protein C; and heparin-like molecules, which serve as a cofactor for antithrombin III. Normal endothelium secretes tissue plasminogen activator, which activates the fibrinolysis system. Endothelium produces and secretes von Willebrand factor, which mediates platelet adhesion and shear-stress-induced aggregation. Injury to endothelium is accompanied by loss of protective molecules and expression of adhesive molecules, procoagulant activities, and mitogenic factors, leading to development of thrombosis, smooth muscle cell migration, and proliferation and atherosclerosis.
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            The post-thrombotic syndrome after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in adults: a systematic review.

            Post-thrombotic syndrome is a chronic, potentially debilitating complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. Comparatively little is known about post-thrombotic syndrome after upper extremity DVT (UEDVT). To perform a systematic review of clinical studies that have examined the incidence, clinical features, risk factors and management of post-thrombotic syndrome after UEDVT. Using combinations of keywords venous thrombosis, postphlebitic syndrome, thrombophlebitis, arm swelling, post-thrombotic syndrome, UEDVT, Paget-Schroetter syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, axillary vein, subclavian vein, and central venous catheter, the MEDLINE database was searched for English language articles published between January 1967 and December 2004. Retrieval and review of articles were restricted to clinical studies in humans that described long-term outcomes after objectively confirmed UEDVT. Seven studies were reviewed. The frequency of PTS after UEDVT ranges from 7-46% (weighted mean 15%). Residual thrombosis and axillosubclavian vein thrombosis appear to be associated with an increased risk of PTS, whereas catheter-associated UEDVT may be associated with a decreased risk. There is currently no validated, standardized scale to assess upper extremity PTS, and little consensus regarding the optimal management of this condition. Quality of life is impaired in patients with upper extremity PTS, especially after DVT of the dominant arm. PTS is a frequent complication of UEDVT, yet little is known regarding risk factors and optimal management. A standardized means of diagnosis would help to establish better management protocols. The impact of upper extremity PTS on quality of life should be further quantified.
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              Thermally injured patients are at significant risk for thromboembolic complications.

              The incidence of thromboembolic complications such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in thermally injured patients is considered sufficiently uncommon that routine prophylactic measures are not warranted. Nevertheless, the incidence of DVT/PE may be increasing. The records of 1,300 patients admitted to our unit from January 1990 to June 1995 were reviewed. Twenty-three patients developed a clinically significant DVT, eight patients developed a PE, and two patients developed both a DVT and a PE, for an overall DVT/PE incidence of 2.9%. Four of 10 PEs were felt to be fatal. The DVT/PE patients were older (mean age, 42.6 vs. 28.7; p 30% over ideal body weight) having a higher incidence than patients with low or normal body weight (7.2 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.015). Age and total body surface area (TBSA) burn had a synergistic effect on DVT/PE risk, with the sum of age and TBSA burn exerting the strongest independent effect when discriminant function analysis was performed (p < 0.001). One can identify a population at increased risk of DVT/PE on the basis of the sum of age and TBSA burn, but prospective screening trials that assess all risk factors for DVT/PE should be performed before routine prophylaxis is used in thermally injured patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2013
                2013
                15 July 2013
                : 9
                : 295-297
                Affiliations
                Department of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaojie He Department of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Email hz_hxj@ 123456163.com
                Article
                tcrm-9-295
                10.2147/TCRM.S46907
                3716559
                23885177
                © 2013 Cen and He, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                burn, combined treatment, heparin

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