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      MYC regulates the antitumor immune response through CD47 and PD-L1

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          Oncogene control of antitumor immunity

          Recent clinical success of cancer immunotherapy has intensified interest in how tumors normally evade the immune response. Whether and how oncogenes contribute to this process are not well understood. In a study of mice, Casey et al. found that the MYC oncogene, which is aberrantly activated in many human cancers, up-regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins that dampen the antitumor response. These include two proteins that are often overexpressed on tumor cells and that serve as immune checkpoints. One of them (PDL1) sends to the immune system a “don't find me” signal, and the other (CD47) sends a “don't eat me” signal. Thus, therapies aimed at suppressing MYC may help promote an immune response against tumors.

          Science , this issue p. [Related article:]227

          Abstract

          Aberrant activation of the MYC gene helps tumor cells evade the immune response.

          Abstract

          The MYC oncogene codes for a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many human cancers. Here we show that MYC regulates the expression of two immune checkpoint proteins on the tumor cell surface: the innate immune regulator CD47 (cluster of differentiation 47) and the adaptive immune checkpoint PD-L1 (programmed death–ligand 1). Suppression of MYC in mouse tumors and human tumor cells caused a reduction in the levels of CD47 and PD-L1 messenger RNA and protein. MYC was found to bind directly to the promoters of the Cd47 and Pd-l1 genes. MYC inactivation in mouse tumors down-regulated CD47 and PD-L1 expression and enhanced the antitumor immune response. In contrast, when MYC was inactivated in tumors with enforced expression of CD47 or PD-L1, the immune response was suppressed, and tumors continued to grow. Thus, MYC appears to initiate and maintain tumorigenesis, in part, through the modulation of immune regulatory molecules.

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          Most cited references54

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          Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity's roles in cancer suppression and promotion.

          Understanding how the immune system affects cancer development and progression has been one of the most challenging questions in immunology. Research over the past two decades has helped explain why the answer to this question has evaded us for so long. We now appreciate that the immune system plays a dual role in cancer: It can not only suppress tumor growth by destroying cancer cells or inhibiting their outgrowth but also promote tumor progression either by selecting for tumor cells that are more fit to survive in an immunocompetent host or by establishing conditions within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate tumor outgrowth. Here, we discuss a unifying conceptual framework called "cancer immunoediting," which integrates the immune system's dual host-protective and tumor-promoting roles.
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            Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?

            The response of the body to a cancer is not a unique mechanism but has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. This article reviews the links between cancer and inflammation and discusses the implications of these links for cancer prevention and treatment. We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they are to mount an effective host antitumour response. Moreover cancer susceptibility and severity may be associated with functional polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokine genes, and deletion or inhibition of inflammatory cytokines inhibits development of experimental cancer. If genetic damage is the "match that lights the fire" of cancer, some types of inflammation may provide the "fuel that feeds the flames". Over the past ten years information about the cytokine and chemokine network has led to development of a range of cytokine/chemokine antagonists targeted at inflammatory and allergic diseases. The first of these to enter the clinic, tumour necrosis factor antagonists, have shown encouraging efficacy. In this article we have provided a rationale for the use of cytokine and chemokine blockade, and further investigation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the chemoprevention and treatment of malignant diseases.
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              Selective inhibition of BET bromodomains

              Epigenetic proteins are intently pursued targets in ligand discovery. To date, successful efforts have been limited to chromatin modifying enzymes, or so-called epigenetic “writers” and “erasers”. Potent inhibitors of histone binding modules have not yet been described. Here we report a cell-permeable small molecule (JQ1) which binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition motifs, or bromodomains. High potency and specificity toward a subset of human bromodomains is explained by co-crystal structures with BRD4, revealing excellent shape complementarity with the acetyl-lysine binding cavity. Recurrent translocation of BRD4 is observed in a genetically-defined, incurable subtype of human squamous carcinoma. Competitive binding by JQ1 displaces the BRD4 fusion oncoprotein from chromatin, prompting squamous differentiation and specific anti-proliferative effects in BRD4-dependent cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models. These data establish proof of concept for targeting protein-protein interactions of epigenetic “readers” and provide a versatile chemical scaffold for the development of chemical probes more broadly throughout the bromodomain family.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                April 08 2016
                April 08 2016
                : 352
                : 6282
                : 227-231
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
                [2 ]Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Core Unit Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.
                [3 ]Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.
                [4 ]Theodor Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.
                Article
                10.1126/science.aac9935
                4940030
                26966191
                1f4c3e72-f33e-404d-9ade-23c982d59842
                © 2016
                History

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