Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that
is not entirely understood. Hence, the relevant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical
work is reviewed, drawing upon correlational, experimental, and qualitative findings.
A meta-analysis of procrastination's possible causes and effects, based on 691 correlations,
reveals that neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show only a weak connection.
Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay,
self-efficacy, and impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control,
distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation. These effects prove consistent
with temporal motivation theory, an integrative hybrid of expectancy theory and hyperbolic
discounting. Continued research into procrastination should not be delayed, especially
because its prevalence appears to be growing.
(c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.