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      The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure.

      Psychological Bulletin

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood. Hence, the relevant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical work is reviewed, drawing upon correlational, experimental, and qualitative findings. A meta-analysis of procrastination's possible causes and effects, based on 691 correlations, reveals that neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show only a weak connection. Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay, self-efficacy, and impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control, distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation. These effects prove consistent with temporal motivation theory, an integrative hybrid of expectancy theory and hyperbolic discounting. Continued research into procrastination should not be delayed, especially because its prevalence appears to be growing. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Psychological Bulletin
          Psychological Bulletin
          American Psychological Association (APA)
          1939-1455
          0033-2909
          2007
          2007
          : 133
          : 1
          : 65-94
          Article
          10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65
          17201571
          © 2007

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