The value of digoxin in the patient in normal sinus rhythm with chronic congestive heart failure continues to be controversial. Although many patients taking digoxin have no clinical deterioration after its discontinuance, there is a subgroup of patients (up to 30% of the total group) who demonstrate clinical deterioration on digoxin withdrawal. Patients with an S<sub>3</sub> gallop and an enlarged left ventricle are especially likely to benefit from digoxin therapy. Futhermore, there is good evidence in patients with congestive heart failure that there is a persistent, chronic, positive inotropic effect with digoxin. Since digitalis is the only presently available, chronic, oral positive inotropic drug capable of increasing stroke volume at any given filling pressure, it should be used in patients with congestive heart failure.