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      ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF CAATINGA IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF BRAZIL Translated title: FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES EM ESTÁDIOS SUCESSIONAIS DE CAATINGA NA REGIÃO SEMI-ARIDA DO BRASIL

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Caatinga is an exclusively Brazilian biome with areas in accentuated process of desertification. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) act in plant succession by favoring the establishment of plant species typical of successional stages and by accelerating recovery leading to a climax stage. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the occurrence and diversity of AMF in successional stages of caatinga in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State. Experimental plots (30 x 60 m) were delimitated in 2007 in areas corresponding to different caatinga successional stages: early caatinga succession (natural revegetation during the previous 15 years); intermediate (natural revegetation for about 35 years); late (mature caatinga with more than 50 years without major disturbances;) and also in pasture areas fenced and protected to represent the initial phase of succession. Plots of all four stages were implemented with three replicates. Soil and root samples were collected in the experimental plots, from the 0-15 cm soil layer in the dry and in the rainy seasons. All areas presented low infectivity potential suggesting that the introduction of mycorrhizal seedlings may accelerate the process of revegetation of degraded soils in this region. Except for the areas of late stage, the glomalin reservoirs increased along with the advancement of the succession process. Areas in the late stage of succession presented greater richness of AMF species, indicating that the establishment of the vegetation also exerts a significant effect in the fungal community. Glomus and Acaulospora species were predominant in both seasons, possibly because they are well adapted to semi-arid conditions.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO A caatinga é um bioma exclusivamente brasileiro com áreas em acentuado processo de desertificação. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) atuam na sucessão vegetal favorecendo o estabelecimento das espécies vegetais próprias das etapas sucessionais e acelerando a recuperação para um estádio clímax da sucessão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e diversidade de FMA em diferentes estádios sucessionais de caatinga no semiárido paraibano. Parcelas experimentais (30 x 60 m) foram demarcadas em áreas representando diferentes estádios sucessionais de caatinga: inicial (revegetação natural nos últimos 15 anos); intermediário (revegetação natural nos últimos 35 anos); tardio (caatinga madura com mais de 50 anos sem severos distúrbios antrópicos); e também em áreas de pasto cercadas e protegidas para representar o momento inicial de sucessão. Parcelas representativas dos quatro estádios foram implantadas com três repetições. Amostras de solo e raízes foram coletadas na camada de 0-15 cm de profundidade, nas estações seca e chuvosa. Todas as áreas apresentaram baixo potencial de infectividade, sugerindo que a introdução de mudas micorrizadas pode acelerar o processo de revegetação de parcelas degradadas nessa área. Com exceção das áreas em estádio tardio, os reservatórios de glomalina aumentaram com o avanço do processo de sucessão. Áreas em estádio tardio de sucessão apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies de FMA, indicando que o reestabelecimento da vegetação também exerce efeito significativo sobre a comunidade fúngica. Os gêneros Glomus e Acaulospora foram predominantes em ambas as estações, possivelmente por serem bem adaptadas às condições de semiárido.

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              Why are evergreen leaves so contrary about shade?

              Leaf mass per area (LMA) is one of the most widely measured of all plant functional traits. In deciduous forests, there is similarity between plastic and evolutionary responses of LMA to light gradients. In evergreens, however, LMA is lower in shaded than sunlit individuals of the same species, whereas shade-tolerant evergreens have higher LMA than light-demanders grown under the same conditions. We suggest that this pattern of 'counter-gradient variation' results from some combination of (i) close evolutionary coordination of LMA with leaf lifespan, (ii) selection for different leaf constitutions (relative investment in cell walls versus cell contents) in sun and shade environments and/or (iii) constraints on plasticity as a result of genetic correlations between phenotypes expressed in sun and shade.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cflo
                Ciência Florestal
                Ciênc. Florest.
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
                1980-5098
                March 2014
                : 24
                : 1
                : 137-148
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia Brazil
                [5 ] Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Brazil
                [6 ] Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station Suíça
                Article
                S1980-50982014000100137
                10.5902/1980509813331

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ECOLOGY
                ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
                FORESTRY

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