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      The hippocampus supports deliberation during value-based decisions


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          Choosing between two items involves deliberation and comparison of the features of each item and its value. Such decisions take more time when choosing between options of similar value, possibly because these decisions require more evidence, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We propose that the hippocampus supports deliberation about value, given its well-known role in prospection and relational cognition. We assessed the role of the hippocampus in deliberation in two experiments. First, using fMRI in healthy participants, we found that BOLD activity in the hippocampus increased as a function of deliberation time. Second, we found that patients with hippocampal damage exhibited more stochastic choices and longer reaction times than controls, possibly due to their failure to construct value-based or internal evidence during deliberation. Both sets of results were stronger in value-based decisions compared to perceptual decisions.

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          The techniques available for the interrogation and analysis of neuroimaging data have a large influence in determining the flexibility, sensitivity, and scope of neuroimaging experiments. The development of such methodologies has allowed investigators to address scientific questions that could not previously be answered and, as such, has become an important research area in its own right. In this paper, we present a review of the research carried out by the Analysis Group at the Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB). This research has focussed on the development of new methodologies for the analysis of both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The majority of the research laid out in this paper has been implemented as freely available software tools within FMRIB's Software Library (FSL).
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            Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion.

            Here, we demonstrate that subject motion produces substantial changes in the timecourses of resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data despite compensatory spatial registration and regression of motion estimates from the data. These changes cause systematic but spurious correlation structures throughout the brain. Specifically, many long-distance correlations are decreased by subject motion, whereas many short-distance correlations are increased. These changes in rs-fcMRI correlations do not arise from, nor are they adequately countered by, some common functional connectivity processing steps. Two indices of data quality are proposed, and a simple method to reduce motion-related effects in rs-fcMRI analyses is demonstrated that should be flexibly implementable across a variety of software platforms. We demonstrate how application of this technique impacts our own data, modifying previous conclusions about brain development. These results suggest the need for greater care in dealing with subject motion, and the need to critically revisit previous rs-fcMRI work that may not have adequately controlled for effects of transient subject movements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Convergence Properties of the Nelder--Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions


                Author and article information

                Role: Reviewing Editor
                Role: Senior Editor
                eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
                03 July 2019
                : 8
                : e46080
                [1 ]deptDepartment of Psychology Columbia University New YorkUnited States
                [2 ]deptMemory Disorders Research Center VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine BostonUnited States
                [3 ]deptDepartment of Neuroscience Columbia University New YorkUnited States
                [4 ]deptMortimer B Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute Columbia University New YorkUnited States
                [5 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute Chevy ChaseUnited States
                [6 ]deptThe Kavli Institute for Brain Science Columbia University New YorkUnited States
                Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine United States
                Brown University United States
                Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine United States
                McGill University Canada
                University of Basel Switzerland
                Author notes

                Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


                Computational and Biological Learning Lab, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

                Author information

                This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

                : 25 February 2019
                : 29 June 2019
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005270, McKnight Foundation;
                Award ID: McKnight Memory and Cognitive Disorders Award
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001, National Science Foundation;
                Award ID: 1606916
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: R01EY011378
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000011, Howard Hughes Medical Institute;
                Award ID: HHMI Investigator
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000738, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs;
                Award ID: VA Senior Research Career Scientist Award
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000738, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs;
                Award ID: VA Merit Grant CX001748
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000053, National Eye Institute;
                Award ID: T32-EY013933
                Award Recipient :
                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication. The contents of this manuscript do not represent the view of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the US Government.
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                The deliberation involved in simple preference decisions, such as those between two familiar snacks, depends on the hippocampus.

                Life sciences
                decision making,hippocampus,fmri,amnesia,human
                Life sciences
                decision making, hippocampus, fmri, amnesia, human


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