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      Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Leaves of Mentha piperita Grown in China

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          Abstract

          The chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil from leaves of Mentha piperita (MEO) grown in China were investigated. Using GC-MS analysis, the chemical composition of MEO was characterized, showing that it was mainly composed of menthol, menthone and menthy acetate. MEO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in a croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. It could also effectively inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cytotoxic effect was assessed against four human cancer cells. MEO was found to be significantly active against human lung carcinoma SPC-A1, human leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, with an IC 50 value of 10.89, 16.16 and 38.76 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, MEO had moderate antioxidant activity. The results of this study may provide an experimental basis for further systematic research, rational development and clinical utilization of peppermint resources.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Inflammation and cancer.

          Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development.
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            Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review.

             Fawaz Edris (2007)
            Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used widely to prevent and treat human disease. The possible role and mode of action of these natural products is discussed with regard to the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and thrombosis, as well as their bioactivity as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidants and antidiabetic agents. Their application as natural skin penetration enhancers for transdermal drug delivery and the therapeutic properties of essential oils in aroma and massage therapy will also be outlined.
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              Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals: down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS through suppression of NF-kappa B activation.

              A wide array of phenolic substances, particularly those present in edible and medicinal plants, have been reported to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. The majority of naturally occurring phenolics retain antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties which appear to contribute to their chemopreventive or chemoprotective activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inducible and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory processes. Improper up-regulation of COX-2 and/or iNOS has been associated with pathophysiology of certain types of human cancers as well as inflammatory disorders. Since inflammation is closely linked to tumor promotion, substances with potent anti-inflammatory activities are anticipated to exert chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis, particularly in the promotion stage. Examples are curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and resveratrol from grapes (Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) that strongly suppress tumor promotion. Recent studies have demonstrated that eukaryotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is involved in regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression. Several chemopreventive phytochemicals have been shown to inhibit COX-2 and iNOS expression by blocking improper NF-kappa B activation. Multiple lines of compelling evidence indicate that extracellular-regulated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase are key elements of the intracellular signaling cascades responsible for NF-kappa B activation in response to a wide array of external stimuli. Curcumin, EGCG and resveratrol have been shown to suppress activation of NF-kappa B. One of the plausible mechanisms underlying inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by aforementioned phytochemicals involves repression of degradation of the inhibitory unit I kappa B alpha, which hampers subsequent nuclear translocation of the functionally active subunit of NF-kappa B.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                10 December 2014
                : 9
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of New Drug & Pharmaceutical Process, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, 200040, China
                [2 ]Ji Lin Medical College, Ji Lin, 132013, China
                [3 ]Department of General Surgery, Fengxian Hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University, Shanghai, 201499, China
                Duke University Medical Center, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: LZ PY. Performed the experiments: ZS HW. Analyzed the data: ZS HW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ZS HW JW. Wrote the paper: ZS.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-29730
                10.1371/journal.pone.0114767
                4262447
                25493616

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 15
                Funding
                The authors have no funding or support to report.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agronomy
                Plant Products
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                Herbal Medicine
                Custom metadata
                The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper.

                Uncategorized

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