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      Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis without Overt Diabetes mellitus

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          Abstract

          The duration of diabetes mellitus and the presence of hyperglycaemia were thought to be important in the development of nodular glomerulosclerosis. We report on 3 patients without overt diabetes, but with glucose intolerance, all male, aged 43–66 years, with histological features of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The nodular form was present in 2 patients and the diffuse form in 1. These cases suggest that factor(s) other than hyperglycaemia are responsible for diabetic renal damage.

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          Renal disease and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

          Recent epidemiologic data demonstrate a dramatic increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), thus dispelling the mistaken belief that renal prognosis is benign in NIDDM. Currently, the leading cause of ESRD in the United States, Japan, and in most industrialized Europe is NIDDM, accounting for nearly 90% of all cases of diabetes. In addition to profound economic costs, patients with NIDDM and diabetic nephropathy have a dramatically increased morbidity and premature mortality. NIDDM-related nephropathy varies widely among racial and ethnic groups, genders and lifestyles; and gender may interact with race to affect the disease progression. While the course of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) progresses through well-defined stages, the natural history of NIDDM is less well characterized. NIDDM patients with coronary heart disease have a higher urinary albumin excretion rate at the time of diagnosis and follow-up. This greater risk may also be associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and genes involved in blood pressure are obvious candidate genes for diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia appears to be an important factor in the development of proteinuria in NIDDM, but its role and the influence of diet are not yet clear. Tobacco smoking can also be deleterious to the diabetic patient, and is also associated with disease progression. Maintaining euglycemia, stopping smoking and controlling blood pressure may prevent or slow the progression of NIDDM-related nephropathy and reduce extrarenal injury. Treatment recommendations include early screening for hyperlipidemia, appropriate exercise and a healthy diet. Cornerstones of management should also include: (1) educating the medical community and more widely disseminating data supporting the value of early treatment of microalbuminuria; (2) developing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary team approach that involves physicians, nurses, diabetes educators and behavioral therapists; and (3) intensifying research in this field.
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            Renal Findings and Glomerular Pathology in Diabetic Subjects

            Background: To describe the relationship between proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency, on one hand, and glomerular pathology, on the other hand, in a consecutive biopsy series of diabetic patients. Subjects and Methods: All diabetic subjects (n = 200) biopsied from 1979 to 1995 at Tampere University Hospital were identified in retrospect. The clinician-based indication (any unexplained renal finding) for renal biopsy was consistent during the years and was: proteinuria alone in 68%; combined with hematuria in 10%; with renal insufficiency in 10%; with both in 9%, and with isolated hematuria or renal failure in 3%. One third of the subjects had proteinuria of ≧3 g/24 h and 16% a serum creatinine level of ≧200 µ M . Glomerulopathy was found in 171 specimens and defined as nodular diabetic (group A), diffuse diabetic (group B) and primary (group C). The 24-hour urinary protein excretion rate [mean (range)] was 3.5 (1.6–6.9), 1.0 (0.5–3.5), and 3.6 (1.1–6.6) g in groups A, B and C, respectively (ANOVA p = 0.001). The corresponding serum creatinine values [mean (SD)] were 175 (115), 105 (142) and 169 (138) µ M (p = 0.001). Results: Nodular diabetic glomerulopathy was found in 40%, diffuse diabetic glomerulopathy in 42% and primary glomerulopathy in 18%. A primary glomerulopathy was found in any indication and in both types of diabetes (prevalence range 14–26%). The best multivariate logistic regression model obtained (χ 2 = 13.5, p = 0.008) in predicting the presence of diabetic glomerulosclerosis (group A + B) in contrast to a primary glomerulopathy (group C) included retinopathy (p = 0.04), renal insufficiency (p = 0.03), hematuria (p = 0.12) and type of diabetes (p = 0.10). Conclusion: In this series of diabetic subjects, biopsied due to proteinuria, hematuria and not severe renal insufficiency, 18% had evidence of a primary glomerulopathy.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              2002
              13 December 2001
              : 90
              : 1
              : 106-108
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Nephrology and bInstitute of Pathology, University Clinical Center, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
              Article
              46322 Nephron 2002;90:106–108
              10.1159/000046322
              11744813
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 5, Pages: 3
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46322
              Categories
              Short Communication

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