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      Structure and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels

      1 , 1 , 1

      Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are evolutionarily related transmembrane signaling proteins that initiate action potentials, neurotransmission, excitation-contraction coupling, and other physiological processes. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of these proteins causes numerous diseases, termed channelopathies, and sodium and calcium channels are the molecular targets for several major classes of drugs. Recent advances in the structural biology of these proteins using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have given new insights into the molecular basis for their function and pharmacology. Here we review this recent literature and integrate findings on sodium and calcium channels to reveal the structural basis for their voltage-dependent activation, fast and slow inactivation, ion conductance and selectivity, and complex pharmacology at the atomic level. We conclude with the theme that new understanding of the diseases and therapeutics of these channels will be derived from application of the emerging structural principles from these recent structural analyses.

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          Most cited references 125

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          Voltage-gated calcium channels.

           W Catterall (2011)
          Voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channels are key transducers of membrane potential changes into intracellular Ca(2+) transients that initiate many physiological events. There are ten members of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel family in mammals, and they serve distinct roles in cellular signal transduction. The Ca(V)1 subfamily initiates contraction, secretion, regulation of gene expression, integration of synaptic input in neurons, and synaptic transmission at ribbon synapses in specialized sensory cells. The Ca(V)2 subfamily is primarily responsible for initiation of synaptic transmission at fast synapses. The Ca(V)3 subfamily is important for repetitive firing of action potentials in rhythmically firing cells such as cardiac myocytes and thalamic neurons. This article presents the molecular relationships and physiological functions of these Ca(2+) channel proteins and provides information on their molecular, genetic, physiological, and pharmacological properties.
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            Structural parts involved in activation and inactivation of the sodium channel.

            Structure-function relationships of the sodium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated by the combined use of site-directed mutagenesis and patch-clamp recording. This study provides evidence that the positive charges in segment S4 are involved in the voltage-sensing mechanism for activation of the channel and that the region between repeats III and IV is important for its inactivation.
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              A cluster of hydrophobic amino acid residues required for fast Na(+)-channel inactivation.

               Y Wang,  C. West,  T Scheuer (1992)
              The inward Na+ current underlying the action potential in nerve is terminated by inactivation. The preceding report shows that deletions within the intracellular linker between domains III and IV remove inactivation, but mutation of conserved basic and paired acidic amino acids has little effect. Here we show that substitution of glutamine for three clustered hydrophobic amino acids, Ile-1488, Phe-1489, and Met-1490, completely removes fast inactivation. Substitution of Met-1490 alone slows inactivation significantly, substitution of Ile-1488 alone both slows inactivation and makes it incomplete, and substitution of Phe-1489 alone removes inactivation nearly completely. These results demonstrate an essential role of Phe-1489 in Na(+)-channel inactivation. It is proposed that the hydrophobic cluster of Ile-1488, Phe-1489, and Met-1490 serves as a hydrophobic latch that stabilizes the inactivated state in a hinged-lid mechanism of Na(+)-channel inactivation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
                Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
                Annual Reviews
                0362-1642
                1545-4304
                January 06 2020
                January 06 2020
                : 60
                : 1
                : 133-154
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021757
                © 2020

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