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      Epidemiology of Vascular Disease in Renal Failure

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Inflammation, Mortality, Hemodialysis, Cardiovascular disease

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the general population and a major cause of morbidity and mortality chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The high prevalence of CVD in incident dialysis populations suggests that CVD begins during or before the stage of chronic renal insufficiency. While traditional risk factors observed in the general population may play a role in the progression of CVD in CKD and ESRD patients, the presence of several nontraditional factors related to the extent of uremia seems to be the more significant feature of CVD in this patient population. Recently, there have been significant advances in our understanding of how inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. The fact that chronic inflammation and CVD are highly prevalent in ESRD patients, it is probable that chronic inflammation may be a causative factor for accelerated atherosclerosis observed in CKD and ESRD patients. Given the extent of the problem, efforts to lower the mortality rate among ESRD patients will require new approaches to reduce and/or prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Shattuck lecture--cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and opportunities.

           E Braunwald (1997)
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            Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study.

            Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between malnutrition and morbidity remains to be clarified. In addition, recent evidence suggests that nutritional indices may reflect an inflammatory response, as well as protein-calorie malnutrition. In this study, we prospectively assessed the relative importance of markers of nutritional status and inflammatory response as determinants of hospitalization in CHD patients. The study consisted of serial measurements of concentrations of serum albumin, creatinine, transferrin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and reactance values by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an indirect measure of lean body mass every 3 months over a period of 15 months in 73 CHD patients. Outcome was determined by hospitalizations over the subsequent three months following each collection of data. Patients who required hospitalization in the three months following each of the measurement sets had significantly different values for all parameters than patients who were not hospitalized. Thus, serum albumin (3.93 +/- 0.39 vs. 3.74 +/- 0.39 g/dl), serum creatinine (11.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.5 mg/dl), serum transferrin (181 +/- 35 vs. 170 +/- 34 mg/dl), serum prealbumin (33.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 30.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl), and reactance (50.4 +/- 15.6 vs. 43.0 +/- 13.0 ohms) were higher for patients not hospitalized, whereas CRP (0.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.25 +/- 2.72 mg/dl) was lower in patients who were not hospitalized. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for all parameters). When multivariate analysis was performed, serum CRP and reactance values were the only statistically significant predictors of hospitalization (P < 0.05 for both). When a serum CRP concentration of 0.12 mg/dl was considered as a reference range (relative risk 1.0), the relative risk for hospitalization was 7% higher (relative risk = 1.07) for a CRP concentration of 0.92 mg/dl and was 30% (relative risk = 1.30) higher for a CRP concentration of 3.4 mg/dl. When a reactance value of 70 ohms was considered as a reference range with a relative risk of 1.0, the relative risk of hospitalization increased to 1.09 for a reactance value of 43 ohms and further increased to 1.14 for a reactance value of 31 ohms. The results of this study strongly indicate that both nutritional status and inflammatory response are independent predictors of hospitalization in CHD patients. CRP and reactance values by BIA are reliable indicators of hospitalization. Visceral proteins such as serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin are influenced by inflammation when predicting hospitalization. When short-term clinical outcomes such as hospitalizations are considered, markers of both inflammation and nutrition should be evaluated.
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              Inflammatory and Atherosclerotic Interactions in the Depleted Uremic Patient

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7372-6
                978-3-318-00813-5
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                17 January 2002
                : 20
                : 1
                : 6-10
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn., USA
                Article
                46979 Blood Purif 2002;20:6–10
                10.1159/000046979
                11803153
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46979
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Inflammation, Hemodialysis, Cardiovascular disease, Mortality

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