The structural differences between arteries and veins are genetically predetermined. Vascular identity markers, the molecular markers specific to veins and arteries, determine the differential development of vessels during embryogenesis and their expression persists in adult vessels. It is revealed that they can be reactivated under various pathophysiologic conditions even after vessel differentiation. Thus, once considered as quiescent in adults, vascular identity markers may actually play significant roles in vascular remodeling. Manipulation of vascular identity and the underlying molecular mechanisms might be a novel strategy to improve vascular remodeling for clinical application.