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      Uncontrolled hyperlipidemia in Chinese patients who experienced acute coronary syndrome: an observational study

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          Despite current standard of care, the overall lipid goal attainment rate for hyperlipidemia patients, especially those who have experienced acute coronary syndrome (ACS), is suboptimal, which predisposes them to a higher residual risk of atherothrombotic events. This study aimed to describe characteristics of Chinese patients who recently experienced an ACS event and were on lipid-lowering treatment, yet failing to reach targeted goal.


          A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit 2,034 Chinese patients who experienced an ACS (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], non-STEMI, or unstable angina) event within the past 4–40 weeks and were on statin treatment (>2 weeks) from March 2015 to December 2016. All eligible patients underwent a fasting lipid test after enrollment and data on medical history were collected.


          The mean age of 1,994 eligible patients was 61.0±9.84 years. Among them, 1,493 (74.9%) patients received intensive statin therapy (defined as atorvastatin 40 or 80 mg, or rosuvastatin 20 mg per protocol) and 499 (25.0%) patients were on maximum tolerated dose statin. Of the 1,994 eligible subjects, 1,273 (63.8%) patients did not achieve the lipid goal at the time of enrollment. Among the not-at-goal patients, 910 (71.5%) received intensive statin therapy; the majority (73.4%) of them were male; the mean age was 61.2±10.1 years old; 699 (54.9%) patients had a history of hypertension; 25.3% had diabetes mellitus; and 29.5% were current smokers. The mean low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and ApoB levels at enrollment of this group of patients were 2.460±0.7139 mmol/L, 3.094±0.8861 mmol/L, and 0.840±0.3015 g/L, respectively.


          The study result demonstrates that overall more than half of the patients who recently (4–40 weeks) experienced ACS who were treated did not reach the guideline-recommended LDL-C and non-HDL-C goal. These results highlight the potential necessity for a new drug beyond statins to further reduce disease burden in the future.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Residual cardiovascular risk despite optimal LDL cholesterol reduction with statins: the evidence, etiology, and therapeutic challenges.

          This review captures the existence, cause, and treatment challenges of residual cardiovascular risk (CVR) after aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction. Scientific evidence implicates low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglycerides (TG) in the CVR observed after LDL-C lowering. However, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) lipid trial with fenofibrate, the Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerotic Events (ILLUMINATE) study with torcetrapib, and the recently terminated Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL Cholesterol/High Triglyceride and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) study with niacin, do not clearly attribute risk reduction value to HDL-C/TG modulation. The optimum approach to long-term lipid-modifying therapies for CVR reduction remains uncertain. Consequently, absolute risk modulation via lifestyle changes remains the centerpiece of a strategy addressing the physiologic drivers of CVR associated with HDL-C/TG, especially in the context of diabetes/metabolic syndrome.
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            [2016 Chinese guideline for the management of dyslipidemia in adults].

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              Prevalence of dyslipidaemia in patients treated with lipid-lowering agents in China: results of the DYSlipidemia International Study (DYSIS).

              Despite clear guideline recommendations, there is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence and type of persistent lipid profile abnormalities in patients on stable lipid-lowering therapy in China. This cross-sectional trial included 25,697 patients treated with lipid-lowering agents from 122 centres between April 2012 and October 2012; all underwent clinical examination and had their latest fasting lipid profiles while on lipid-lowering therapy recorded. Logistic regression was performed to assess predictors for lipid abnormalities classified according to current Chinese guidelines. Overall, 29.1% of patients had no lipid abnormalities, and 38.5% of patients did not achieve the therapeutic goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), either as a single lipid anomaly or associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, or both. Subjects with low risk were more likely than those with very high and high risk to be at target LDL-C levels. Furthermore, 10.4% of very high-risk patients and 11.1% of high-risk patients who attained the LDL-C goal failed to attain non-HDL-C goals. Diabetes was shown to be a strong predictor of failure in attaining non-HDL-C and both goals (OR 3.03; 3.22, 95% CI 2.58-3.55; 2.73-3.79, respectively). Although great improvements have been made over the past decade, the large majority of very high-risk and high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowing agents still had one or more manifestations of dyslipidaemia. Further clinical evidence is needed to clarify whether adding other lipid-lowering agents to a statin will be associated with additional cardiovascular risk reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                16 November 2018
                : 14
                : 2255-2264
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034, China, yonghuo54@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, Xicheng District, Beijing 100037, China
                [4 ]Department of Cardiology, Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200032, China
                [5 ]Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510080, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Huo, Peking University First Hospital, 8 XishikuDajie, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034, China, Tel +86 101 8357 2211, Email yonghuo54@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 Jiang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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